The collective work of Siavash Alamouti, Hamid Jafarkhani, and Vahid Tarokh (pictured left to right: Tarokh, Jafarkhani, Alamouti) has helped the wireless communications industry with improved quality of service and increased network capacity and has been a key enabler for 4th Generation OFDM/MIMO systems. Space-time block codes have enabled multiple-input multiple-output wireless communications systems help overcome the challenges of signal fading without the need for extra receiver antennas. Wireless data is transmitted in multiple redundant “blocks” from antenna to antenna across the network to improve the likelihood of quality data transfer on the receiver end. The trio’s research has greatly influenced the standardization, commercialization, and advancement of these codes. Mr. Alamouti created the first space-time block code for two transmit antennas in 1997 (the Alamouti code). Dr. Tarokh later generalized the code and together with Dr. Jafarkhani and A.R. Calderbank published two papers in 1999 spurring major research efforts. Dr. Jafarkhani extended the performance of space-time codes by introducing the quasi-orthogonal space-time block code in 2001.
Mr. Alamouti is the group research and development director at Vodafone, London, UK. Dr. Jafarkhani is a Chancellor’s Professor with the University of California, Irvine. Dr. Tarokh is a professor with the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.
The individual and joint efforts of Jack H. Winters and Andreas F. Molisch have shaped multiple-antenna technology from the first smart antenna algorithms to recent contributions to 3G and 4G wireless standards. Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) antenna technology has increased the reliability and spectral efficiency in practically all modern cellular communications systems. Dr. Winters pioneered the use of smart antennas for multipath communications with his breakthrough work in 1984. His optimal combining method is widely used in multiple-antenna receivers. In 1987, Dr. Winters was the first to demonstrate spatial multiplexing using multiple antennas in wireless systems for increased channel capacity. Dr. Molisch is one the world’s leading experts on properties of MIMO channels. His work on double-directional propagation channels in 2001 forms the basis for practically every standardized channel model used for MIMO systems. Much of Dr. Molisch’s work has found its way into popular international standards such as IEEE 802.11n and 3GPP-LTE Advanced. Working together at AT&T Laboratories-Research, in 2001 the duo developed the cooperative multipoint concept for MIMO systems to address adjacent-cell interference problems. This approach allows base stations to share information and act as a larger MIMO system that is able to suppress adjacent-cell interference, resulting in dramatically increased capacity. It has become an important research area in wireless communications and is impacting the next generation of cellular phone technology.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Winters is currently managing member of Jack Winters Communications, LLC, Middletown, N.J.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Molisch is currently a full professor at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
H. Vincent Poor’s innovative signal processing techniques for handling interference in multiple-access networks have impacted some of the most important communications technologies developed over the past 20 years as well as emerging technologies. His contributions to multiuser detection and related technologies address the reception of communications signals in the presence of interfering signals from other users in a wireless network. This work is particularly useful for today’s wireless communication systems, which typically involve sharing of the radio spectrum among multiple users to make optimal use of radio resources. Notably, he has contributed techniques that are applicable across a broad spectrum of wireless multiple-access systems, including multiple-antenna systems, systems that can adapt to their interference environments, and systems that exploit the redundancy of error-control coding, among others.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Poor is currently the Michael Henry Strater University Professor of Electrical Engineering and Dean of the School of Engineering and Applied Science at Princeton University, NJ.
Current and next-generation cellular phones, wide-area wireless networks and WiFi systems have all been impacted by Reinaldo A. Valenzuela’s pioneering contributions. Spurred by the theoretical findings that tremendous increases in wireless capacity could be achieved with MIMO technology, under Valenzuela’s leadership, the group developed the “VBLAST” prototype, which incorporated eight transmission antennas and 12 receiver antennas, and achieved a spectral efficiency of 20 to 40 bits per second per hertz with an average signal to noise ratio of about 24 to 32 decibels. This demonstrated for the first time the practicality and potential of multiple antennas for wireless communications. Tests were conducted in urban, suburban and indoor settings to prove that the technology could successfully enhance wireless communications in challenging environments.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Valenzuela is currently the director of the Wireless Communications Research Department at Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs, Holmdel, N.J.
Digital communication systems pioneer Roberto Padovani transformed wireless communications by developing and commercializing “third generation” (3G) cellular communications networks incorporating code division multiple access (CDMA) technology. Dr. Padovani created the original CDMA technology with digital processing algorithms and techniques for generation, acquisition and tracking of pseudo-random systems and modulation and demodulation of higher-order signal constellations and development of turbo codes, all incorporated on microchips that were continuously seeing reductions in size, power and cost.
The 3G cellular phones, smart-phones and data cards that consumers purchase today implement the ideas and techniques developed by these research efforts. Today 700 million users worldwide use 3G cellular phones. Dr. Padovani then evolved CDMA into a platform that could also support digital broadband data at rates that were much higher than those required for voice, resulting in the 1x and EVDO standards.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Padovani is executive vice president and chief technology officer at Qualcomm, Inc., San Diego, California.
The collaborative work of Michael G. Luby and Amin Shokrollahi has led to breakthroughs in data transmission over packet-based networks that have resulted in global communications standards for mobile broadcasting, satellite data transmission, and Internet TV. The breakthroughs are based on a combination of the invention and practical implementations of a new class of FEC codes, called fountain codes, and the novel application of these codes to data transport. The fountain codes allow multiple senders to transmit information to multiple receivers with high quality and timely streaming media. There are several variations of these codes that are used today in a number of enterprises, military, and consumer devices and applications, supporting both wired and wireless telecommunications networks. While working together at the International Computer Science Institute, University of California, Berkeley, they also collaborated on the invention of Tornado codes, erasure protecting codes with super-fast encoding and decoding algorithms.
Dr. Luby is co-founder and chief technology officer of Digital Fountain, Inc. He is also the inventor of Luby Transform (LT) codes, the breakthrough technology that forms the basis of Digital Fountain’s products. Dr. Luby received a doctorate in theoretical computer science from the University of California, Berkeley.
Dr. Shokrollahi, is currently a professor of mathematics and computer science at Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland, and chief scientist of Digital Fountain, Inc... He received his master’s degree in mathematics from Karlsruhe University (Karlsruhe, Germany) and a doctorate in computer science and mathematics from the University of Bonn.
Robert A. Scholtz and Moe Z. Win worked together to pioneer ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) impulse technology, a form of radio communications that has strongly influenced the direction of wireless communications, both in academia and industry, and enabled economical wireless access without licensing restrictions.
Dr. Scholtz and Dr. Win first collaborated in the early 1990s at the University of Southern California (USC) on landmark studies that provided the theoretical basis for the design of UWB wireless networks. Scholtz, then a professor, published the first analysis of the potential of UWB communications. Win, then a doctoral student working with Scholtz, performed the first UWB signal propagation experiments leading to the efficient design and performance analysis of UWB transmission systems.
They were the first to demonstrate the superiority of UWB in multipath environments, including resistance to jamming and fading, immunity to interference, and reduced power requirements. The two researchers created the UltRa Laboratory at USC, the first university UWB radio research program. It provided the foundation for using UWB technology in the design of reliable wireless networks.
Scholtz’s and Win’s work was a precursor of an extensive study by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission, which ultimately authorized commercial use of UWB technology for many new applications, including broadband Internet access, high-speed multimedia data transfer, sensor networks, medical imaging, and ground-penetrating radar. They also developed a unique wireless methodology for the U.S. Department of Defense that enables robust communication connectivity in harsh environments.
The Fred H. Cole Professor of Engineering at USC’s Viterbi School of Engineering, Dr. Scholtz coauthored the Spread Spectrum Communications Handbook and authored The Origins of Spread Spectrum Communication. An IEEE Fellow, he has been a member of both the Board of Governors of the IEEE Communications Society (ComSoc) and the IEEE Information Theory Society. He has received the IEEE Donald G. Fink Prize Paper Award, ComSoc’s IEEE Leonard G. Abraham Award, and the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society’s Sergey A. Schelkunoff Transactions Prize Paper Award, jointly with Dr. Win and Dr. J.M. Cramer. He has a bachelor’s degree from the University of Cincinnati in Ohio, a master’s degree from USC, and a doctoral degree from Stanford University, all in electrical engineering.
An associate professor at the Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Dr. Win is an internationally acclaimed authority on UWB wireless networks and has organized and chaired many conferences on UWB communications. An IEEE Fellow and IEEE Distinguished Lecturer, he currently chairs ComSoc’s Radio Communications Committee and has been editor of Wideband Wireless and Diversity and an area editor for Modulation and Signal Design, both for the IEEE Transactions on Communications.
Dr. Win has received the MIT School of Engineering Educational Innovation Award, the U.S. Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, a Fulbright Fellowship, and the International Telecommunications Innovation Award from the Korea Electronics Technology Institute. He holds a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from Texas A&M University in College Station, a master’s degree in applied mathematics and a doctoral degree in electrical engineering, both from USC.
As a senior Vice President of Networking Research for Bell Labs in Holmdel, New Jersey, Dr. Krishan K. Sabnani is noted for his contributions to communications protocols. His work helped shape the Internet and cellular networks, reducing network infrastructure costs by as much as 50%. He was the first to develop a systematic approach to conformance testing, allowing communications systems to work together and reducing test time from weeks to a few hours. He also played a critical role in the design of several important protocols, including SNR and AirMail, and is noted for his contributions to RMTP (Reliable Multicast Transport Protocol), which enables reliable data multicasting over the Internet. He has been a leader in defining Lucent's 3G wireless strategy, creating differential global roaming solutions among cellular and wireless networks that enable wireless communication from any location.
An IEEE Fellow, he is a recipient of the W. Wallace McDowell Award of the IEEE Computer Society.
Over the past four decades, Dr. Gerard J. Foschini has profoundly impacted communications theory and engineering, most notably through his work on layered spacetime multi-antenna systems. Such techniques, which allow unprecedented levels of spectral efficiency, are being applied to wireless LAN (Wi-Fi) systems and are being proposed in the next-generation mobile wireless communication systems.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Foschini has won the Lucent Inventor's Award and the Research and Development Council of New Jersey's Thomas Alva Edison Patent Award. He is a Bell Labs Fellow and past recipient of the Bell Labs Inventor's Award, Gold Award and Teamwork Award. With 100 published papers, including seminal works on optical communications and resource allocation for both computer networks and wireless systems, he holds seven patents and has six pending. Dr. Foschini holds the position of Distinguished Member of Staff, Distinguished Inventor at Bell Laboratories in Holmdel, New Jersey, where he has worked since 1961.
Hans R. Mueller and Werner Bux's research formed the foundation for the revolutionary token ring technology. A key local area networking standard from the 1980s through the 1990s, token ring introduced several benefits, including automatic fault detection and recovery, reduced delays at ring interfaces and stable transmission. The legacy of the technology can be seen in today's high-speed, fault-resistant fiber optic LANs and Ethernet. Mr. Mueller and Dr. Bux's innovative system to automatically detect and recover from faults on the network has since become a part of many other networking systems and of IEEE Standard 802.5.
Hailed as the father of the token ring for his work at IBM Zurich, Mr. Mueller contributed several key ideas for the token ring architecture and was a leader in its design. A Fellow of the IEEE, he holds 25 patents, and has published close to 50 papers. He has received honors including the IBM Outstanding Innovation Award, the IBM Corporate Award and seven IBM Invention Achievement Awards. Mr. Mueller's tenure at the IBM Zurich research lab spanned from 1958 until his retirement in 1990.
Dr. Bux made major contributions to token ring's architecture, demonstrated the superior performance of the token ring and contributed to the development of international communications standards. A Fellow of the IEEE, he has served the IEEE in various roles including as senior editor of the IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications and on the IEEE 802.2 and 802.5 Standards Working Groups. He is editor-in-chief of the Performance Evaluation journal. His honors include two IBM Outstanding Innovation awards and a corporate award. Dr. Bux is manager of IBM Zurich's Communication Systems department.
Over the last few decades, Dr. John E. Midwinter has been a key figure worldwide in the optical communications revolution. He led the development of optical fiber technology at the British Post Office (later BT Labs). His group operated the first installed traffic-carrying graded-index fiber links in the United Kingdom’s network, which was critical in establishing fiber optics as the country’s preferred transmission medium. His subsequent work at the University College, London, in photonic switching and all-optical networks, helped pave the way for today’s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks. He has written or co-authored several books and hundreds of papers.
A Fellow of the IEEE, IEE, Royal Society, Royal Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Physics, Dr. Midwinter serves as IEE President. His honors include the IEE J.J. Thompson and Faraday Medals. He is the Pender professor of the Electrical Engineering Department at UCL.
Dr. Nakahara has achieved outstanding results in communications research and development, especially concerning transmission wires and cables. He has been a major force in the conception, design, and manufacturing of optical fiber and cables. He joined Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. in 1953, and has performed a wide range of research and development in the System & Electronics Division and Communications Divisions of the company. Under his guidance, Sumitomo Electric Industries developed the VAD (Vapor phase Axial Deposition) optical fiber manufacturing technology, which has demonstrated outstanding productivity through continuous production. He holds nearly 300 patents in the United States and Japan combined and has published roughly 100 papers.
A Fellow of the IEEE, his numerous awards include an IEEE Millennium Medal, the Okabe Memorial Award from the Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers of Japan, and many others.