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Content is any piece of information found on a digital page, including text, images, multimedia, and page elements such as contact information (name, phone number, email address, etc.).

This page contains the style guide for creating, editing, and maintaining content.

ieee required element icon= Required


References to IEEE: branding, tone, and voice


  • Use "IEEE," not the "Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers" or "the Institute."
  • Use "IEEE," not "we" or "our."
  • Use "IEEE," not "the IEEE."
  • Only use "IEEE" when referring to an activity or policy of the overall organization. If the statement refers to a specific area of IEEE only, be sure to clearly state this.

When "IEEE" is part of the name of a product, publication, service, Society, or other title, it should never be dropped. This applies to first and subsequent references. (Examples: IEEE Xplore®, IEEE Spectrum, IEEE Computer Society).


  • Use the organization name "IEEE" when speaking about the entire organization, or be explicit about the organizational unit "IEEE Member and Geographic Activities."
  • Use second person language  for instructional material. For content where information is directed at the user, refer to the user as “you.”
  • Use common language. Compared to print, digital is a more informal and immediate medium. Be sure that all potential audiences understand the content.
  • Focus on the user’s needs rather than presenting the organizational view of IEEE. Only describe individual organizational units (OUs) or boards when doing so is integral to the user's understanding of the surrounding content, or when soliciting user involvement in the organization.
  • Write in the active voice, which emphasizes the “doer” of the action, not the “receiver.”
    Correct: “IEEE members hold more patents than do any other professional society members.”
    Incorrect: “More patents have been awarded to IEEE members than to members of any other professional society.”
    (The first sentence is shorter, yet it conveys the same message as the other; it also more accurately describes what IEEE does.)
  • Use conventional terminology when providing directions or instructions. There is a varied understanding among users as to what many site features are called. If using acronyms or terminology specific to IEEE, make sure to explain or define it as needed.


  • Avoid first person language such as “we” or “our,” e.g., "IEEE conducts meetings ..." or "The Member and Geographic Activities Board will meet ...".
  • Avoid making exaggerated claims or using promotional language to describe products and services. Use factual, objective information to present information more objectively.
  • Avoid IEEE jargon and terms, or explanations that may not be understood by non-members or a more general audience. Spell out acronyms on first usage, or avoid entirely if not essential.
  • Avoid using self-referential terms, such as “click here,” “follow this link,” and “this website.”



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IEEE style conventions and grammar

Use Don't use
IEEE member IEEE Member
IEEE volunteers IEEE Volunteers
Serial comma in 3+ series (e.g., "Red, yellow, and blue wires") Regular comma in 3+ series (e.g., "Red, yellow and blue wires")
Colon or em dash where necessary. See Hyphens, en dashes, and em dashes section for usage Regular dash. See Hyphens, en dashes, and em dashes section for usage
Third-person language for IEEE (see Tone and voice section) First-person language (we, us, our) for IEEE
IEEE (see References to IEEE section) The IEEE, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, the Institute, etc.
email e-mail
Months in dates spelled out to avoid ambiguity (4 September 2015); do not abbreviate month if possible Numerals (4/9/15 US or 9/4/15 international)
People with disabilities (use "people-first" language where the person is identified prior to the disability) Disabled/handicapped
Numbered lists: use 1., 2., etc. 1) or (1)
Spacing around slashes: close up any spaces. Correct usage: and/or Incorrect usage: and / or
website Web site, web site, Website (unless the first word in sentence or in title)
Internet, intranet, extranet internet, Intranet, Extranet
Testimonials: edit small grammatical mistakes Testimonials with mistakes
Degrees: Use periods for abbreviated degrees rather than spelling out in full. For instance, use M.S. and Ph.D. Capitalize fields of study when referring to degrees only (e.g., Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering) BS, MS, PhD in electrical engineering
Names on second reference: Use last name only on second reference (add title if source prefers) First names on second reference
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) MoU
Ensure (unless referring to insurance) Insure (unless referring to insurance)



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Legal requirements

ieee required element icon ​​Using trademark symbols

Trademark symbols must be included ​along ​with​​ a trademarked product name the first time it is mentioned on a web page.

Use ​the ​appropriate trademark symbols: unregistered (™) or registered (®) after the full name of the trademarked product. (Example: IEEE ​​Xplore® Digital Library.)

The ​trademark ​symbol ​must only appear upon first usage on the page​ and need not appear every time the product name is mentioned on that page.

​​ieee required element iconCiting sources

Provide the source of all content that is not original once permission for publishing has been obtained. Or instead, link directly to the source. It is mandatory to provide credit to the original source. 

Do not use content from another site (including IEEE sites) without permission. For example, do not use Google images found through search without permission of the owner.


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Amount of content

The purpose of the page should determine the length of the content.  

Use short pages, or those containing one or two screens of text at most, for the first few levels of a site where users are scanning for link choices. 

Longer pages (those that require more scrolling) may be more acceptable deeper within the site where related content can be printed and read later.

The primary measure of page length should be content. Think through your material; create logical divisions and subdivisions based on the structure of your information. You should not arbitrarily divide your information simply to conform to acceptable page length.

When creating deeper pages within the site, where scrolling may not be avoidable, the following devices should be considered to make the content more easily readable and navigable:
• Anchor links to bookmarks throughout the page with "back" links to return the user to "top"
• Subheadings and relevant links (where appropriate) to serve as signposts for the user
• Bulleted copy and meaningful graphics, or pull quotes, to break up larger blocks of text
• End links allowing the user to access other relevant pages without having to scroll back to the top of the page


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Timeliness of content

Keeping accurate and timely content establishes credibility for IEEE as a trustworthy source of information.

  • Update pages regularly in order to keep information, such as data and statistics, timely and accurate.
  • When using statistical data on your page, ensure that the information is current and up-to-date and is accompanied by the source from which it was derived, along with the date the data was compiled.

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Copy width

Lines of text should be no longer than half the width of the screen for optimum readability.


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Page layout and formatting

Show importance or priority by:

  • Placing important elements near the top of the page
  • Making key words or phrases bold (use sparingly)
  • Using white space around important elements to make them stand out.

Some ways to show relationships between content include:

  • Grouping items together or placing them in proximity to each other to show similarity
  • Nesting items under another item to show a child/parent relationship.

Other tips for creating a more readable, interesting page layout include:

  • Using headings and sub-headings
  • Breaking text into short paragraphs
  • Using bulleted lists - view how to format a bulleted list on (PDF, 70 KB)
  • Incorporating links to other relevant content within your text
  • Using left and right columns for appropriate content
  • Using images, charts, graphs, and/or tables to present or support complex information.

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Content writing strategies

Content for the digital platform versus for print
Do not simply move print content onto your digital pages. Instead, write content that can be quickly and efficiently read by a user in the most concise manner possible.

Print versus online
If your content is likely to be read online, create shorter pages that are cross-linked.

If your content is likely to be printed from the digital platform, create one long page. 

Consider audience and tasks
Determine your page’s potential audience members.

Establish the goals each of these audience members may want to achieve on your page, and create a page that helps users easily accomplish these goals.

Consider user language
All content for must be written in English.

Establish context/orientation
Let the user know where he or she is on every page. Establish the topic by using a unique page heading.

Link to background information where necessary.

Use the following devices to increase scannability:
• Use shorter (50–80 characters per line) rather than longer line lengths (100 characters per line)
• Use left alignment for headings, sub-headings, and text
• Link where appropriate
• Use lists rather than paragraphs wherever possible
• Include only one main idea in each paragraph
• Put the most important information at the top
• Start the page with the conclusion as well as a short summary of the remaining content
• Use headings where applicable
• Never use capitalization (CAPS) for emphasis
• Use short, simple words that are to the point
• Be concise and focused


For longer pages, use the following tools to make the page easily scannable:
• Anchor links
• Subheadings and relevant links
• Bulleted copy; view how to format a bulleted list on (PDF, 70 KB)
• Quotes
• Meaningful graphics, or pull quotes, to break up larger blocks of text
• End links

Effective use of lists

Follow these guidelines when presenting your content in a list format:
• Use numbered lists when the order of entries is important.
• Use bulleted lists whenever the order of the entries is not important.
• Generally, limit the number of items in a single list to no more than nine.
• Generally, limit lists to no more than two levels: primary and secondary.

International writing conventions
Use the following formats:

  • Formal correspondence: DD MONTH YYYY (e.g., 17 September 1999)
  • Computer applications: YYYY-MM-DD (e.g., 1999-09-17) or YY-MM-DD (e.g., 99-09-17)
Phone numbers
  • US: Plus sign/1/area code/number with no dashes (e.g., +1 732 555 1212)
  • Non-US: Use appropriate country code
  • Note: Be sure that forms address the phone number formats of all international audience members, not just the US format
Seasons Use the month or quarter of the year to refer to dates, not the season.
Time zone Use local and UTC (e.g., 2:00 p.m. ET/1800 UTC-05). Use ET (Eastern Time) all year instead of EST or EDT. Use the same for CT (Central Time) and PT (Pacific Time). Use periods and lowercase letters in a.m. and p.m.
Currency When referencing to US currency, include a “US” in front of the dollar sign (e.g., US$25). Do not include decimal point and cents if the number of cents is 0.
Humor and colloquialism Avoid using puns, clichés, popular expressions, and jargon in your writing.

Numbering conventions
When using a number between zero and ten, spell out the number (e.g., "three" or "ten").

When using any number higher than ten, use the numeric version (e.g., "12" or “300”).

The page titles of all IEEE digital pages should be in title case. All words four letters or more get capitalized, as do any nouns, pronouns, verbs, or adjectives. Any hyphenated word will require a capital letter after the hyphen in titles (for instance, Pre-University).

Section headers, form fields, and all other page content should be written in sentence case. Only proper nouns and titles should be capitalized.

Punctuation of the following commonly-used IEEE terms is as follows:

Uppercase Lowercase
  • Section
  • Region
  • Society
  • Council
  • Chapter
  • Student Branch
  • Student (or Life, Senior, etc.)
  • Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)
  • organizational unit
  • geographic unit
  • committee
  • member
  • volunteer
  • affinity group


British spellings and terminology
Change all British spellings to American spellings where applicable. This includes "toward" (US) vs. "towards" (UK), "among" (US) vs. "amongst" (UK), etc.

Adhere to standard grammar and punctuation rules when it comes to pluralization of typical words.

The plural of calendar years does not take the apostrophe before the “s.” For example, the plural form of 1990 is 1990s.

Hyphens, en dashes, and em dashes
Use the hyphen to combine words and to separate numbers that are not inclusive.

Use the en dash to represent the words “to,” “through,” or “and.” Use it between page numbers, years, names, a range of values, or for opposites. When using the en dash to represent a range, if the word “from” occurs, the word “to” must be used rather than the en dash (e.g., “ranges from 11 to 50 times”).

Use the em dash to mark a suspension of the sentence, or like a parenthesis, to mark a subordinate thought within a sentence.

Words that are often confused
Be sure to use the correct and more accurate word in context.


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Metadata and Search engine optimization (SEO)

At a minimum, all sites should include the following best practices for SEO:

Home page and top-level landing page metadata descriptions

  • Should be well written to convey the purpose of the site
  • Should include primary, relevant keywords

Proper use of page titles throughout the site

  • Should include keywords relevant to the page content
  • Should be no more than 65 characters (including spaces) in length
  • Should use H1 header tags

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URL and file naming

The following guidelines should be used:

  • Directory and file names should be made as short as possible, while still having meaning to the user, to avoid excessively long URLs.
  • The landing page of a section should be named "index," while all other files (pages) within the folder should have names that refer to the page title.
  • Each file name within a section should be unique.
  • Use all lowercase and avoid special characters (including spaces) when creating file and folder names.
  • When creating a new site, Google recommends using dashes instead of underscores as URL word separators in order to optimize your site for search engines. However, if you have an existing site that is using underscores, it is not recommended to go back and change all existing URLs, as the impact on user experience (i.e., inconsistency, broken bookmarks and links, etc.) may outweigh the positives in this case. 

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A web form is a web area where users can enter data that is sent to a server for processing. A web form resembles paper forms because users fill out the forms using check boxes, radio buttons, or text fields. A form could be used to collect many different types of data such as member, personal, and/or financial information.


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Advertising on IEEE digital pages should be contextual to the site's purpose and should be used sparingly.

Advertising on is restricted, but it is allowed on other IEEE sites.

Contact the Digital Innovations team,, with any questions regarding advertising issues on IEEE sites or advertising on


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