Gagné's Nine Events is a list of instructional events that make up a specific instructional model. Gagné argues that an instructional lesson or module is not complete unless it attends to each of these nine events. When designing an instructional lesson or module, decide on strategies for handling each of the events in the model. .
Use Gagne's Nine Events to develop your course instruction strategy.
1. Gain attention: How can you gain learners' attention? How can you establish the relevance of your material and pique their curiosity?
In order for any learning to take place, you must first capture the attention of the student. A multimedia program that begins with an animated title screen sequence accompanied by sound effects or music startles the senses with auditory or visual stimuli. An even better way to capture students' attention is to start each lesson with a thought-provoking question or interesting fact. Curiosity motivates students to learn.
2. Inform learners of objectives: Upfront, tell learners what the objective is. Establish expectancy.
Early in each lesson students should encounter a list of learning objectives. This initiates the internal process of expectancy and helps motivate the learner to complete the lesson. These objectives should form the basis for assessment and possible certification as well. Typically, learning objectives are presented in the form of "Upon completing this lesson you will be able to. . . ."
3. Stimulate recall of prior learning: How can you convey the relevance of your material? How can you link your instructional material to learners' prior experiences or knowledge?
Associating new information with prior knowledge can facilitate the learning process. It is easier for learners to encode and store information in long-term memory when there are links to personal experience and knowledge. A simple way to stimulate recall is to ask questions about previous experiences, an understanding of previous concepts, or a body of content.
4. Present the content: How can you accommodate for different learning styles? How can you engage different presentation methods? (Video, Graphics, Audio)
This event of instruction is where the new content is actually presented to the learner. Content should be chunked and organized meaningfully, and typically is explained and then demonstrated. To appeal to different learning modalities, a variety of media should be used if possible, including text, graphics, audio narration, and video.
5. Provide "learning guidance": Advise the learner of strategies to aid learning and of resources available.
To help learners encode information for long-term storage, additional guidance should be provided along with the presentation of new content. Guidance strategies include the use of examples, non-examples, case studies, graphical representations, mnemonics, and analogies.
6. Elicit performance (practice): How can you engage learners? How can learners demonstrate what they know?
In this event of instruction, the learner is required to practice the new skill or behavior. Eliciting performance provides an opportunity for learners to confirm their correct understanding, and the repetition further increases the likelihood of retention.
7. Provide feedback: How can you provide helpful, constructive feedback on learner activities?
As learners practice new behavior it is important to provide specific and immediate feedback of their performance. Unlike questions in a post-test, exercises within tutorials should be used for comprehension and encoding purposes, not for formal scoring. Additional guidance and answers provided at this stage are called formative feedback.
8. Assess performance: How can you assess whether learners are ready to proceed? What kinds of formative and summative assessment will you employ?
Upon completing instructional modules, students should be given the opportunity to take (or be required to take) a post-test or final assessment. This assessment should be completed without the ability to receive additional coaching, feedback, or hints. Mastery of material, or certification, is typically granted after achieving a certain score or percent correct. A commonly accepted level of mastery is 80% to 90% correct.
9. Enhance retention and transfer to the job: How can you review, summarize, and connect your instructional material to learners' life experience and prior knowledge?
Determining whether or not the skills learned from a training program are ever applied back on the job often remains a mystery to training managers - and a source of consternation for senior executives. Effective training programs have a "performance" focus, incorporating design and media that facilitate retention and transfer to the job. The repetition of learned concepts is a tried and true means of aiding retention, although often disliked by students. (There was a reason for writing spelling words ten times as grade school student.) Creating electronic or online job-aids, references, templates, and wizards are other ways of aiding performance.