An Academy Award®-winning film studio with world-renowned technical, creative, and production capabilities in the art of computer animation, Pixar Animation Studios has produced deep and lasting innovations in virtually every aspect of computer graphics. Starting in the early 1970s, Pixar technologists led by Edwin Catmull have been at the forefront of the field. Pixar has created some of the most successful and beloved animated films of all time, and their techniques have been responsible for the adoption of computer graphics in an extraordinary number of industries beyond entertainment. Pixar began as the Graphics Group, which was part of the Computer Division of Lucasfilm. At Lucasfilm, the team achieved key computer-generated imagery milestones. In 1986 Pixar was acquired by Apple cofounder Steve Jobs, and the studio’s short film, Luxo Jr., was a milestone in the use of 3D computer animation to tell a story. In 1995, Pixar forever impacted the future of filmmaking and animation with the release of its first feature film, Toy Story. Toy Story completely upended how animated films were produced, moving from 2D cell animation to full 3D computer animation. Among their many innovations, Pixar invented digital image compositing, including the now-standard Porter-Duff compositing algebra. Pixar’s depth buffer algorithm for hidden surface removal, texture mapping, programmable shading, and stochastic sampling became the basis of all modern renderers. Their RenderMan renderer has been used in hundreds of motion pictures. Pixar’s introduction of volume rendering became an indispensable tool not only in filmmaking but also in scientific visualization and medical imaging. Pixar also pioneered particle systems for creating a wide variety of physical phenomena. Marionette was Pixar’s first proprietary 3D animation program, enabling the creation of Toy Story and used for animated films through 2011. In 2012, Pixar launched the Presto animation system with a powerful layering and referencing model to allow large teams of artists to work collaboratively on extremely rich and complicated imagery and motion.
Located in Emeryville, CA, USA, Pixar is currently under the direction of Edwin Catmull, cofounder of Pixar Animation Studios and president of Pixar and Walt Disney Animation Studios.
The converter products developed by Analog Devices, Inc. (ADI) are intelligently bridging the gap between the analog and digital worlds to help the digital revolution reach new markets and applications. Having introduced over 3,000 innovative converter products since 1965, ADI continues to push the state of the art in performance, allowing a wide variety of systems to connect the emerging world of digital processing to real-world analog signal processing. ADI’s products enable the acquisition of analog data; conversion of that data into digital format for computation, manipulation, storage, and transmission; and the return of the data back to the real world as analog control, display, or sound. ADI introduced the first generations of “complete” converters, providing high performance and ease of use. The ability to integrate more functionality with precision converters—such as programmable gain amplifiers, multiplexers, self-calibration, and digital isolation—has greatly enhanced key industrial applications such as smart sensors, field instruments, programmable logic controllers, and distributed control systems. ADI’s contributions to modern delta-sigma measurement converters revolutionized high-precision applications such as weigh scales, strain gauges, and temperature measurements that have led to lower production costs and more environmentally friendly factories. ADI’s advances in delta-sigma converters have also driven the revolution in portable audio devices by enabling wide dynamic range at very low power levels, and on-chip analog and digital filtering has enabled radios that are many times smaller and lower in power than previous generations. ADI’s ability to add precision analog circuits to standard CMOS digital circuits has led to the introduction of microconverters that combine precision amplifiers, voltage references, and temperature sensors with industry-standard microprocessor cores to improve automotive battery life and the accuracy of healthcare vital-sign monitoring devices.
With headquarters located in Norwood, MA, USA, Analog Devices, Inc. is led by Vincent Roche, president and chief executive officer. Ray Stata is cofounder of the company and chairman of the board.
For pioneering the use of high-k metal gate and tri-gate transistor technologies in high-volume manufacturing
Leading the semiconductor industry in developing revolutionary transistor technologies and achieving early high-volume manufacturing of microprocessor products, Intel’s high-k metal gate and tri-gate transistor innovations have allowed the continuation of Moore's Law and enabled products with improved performance and lower power consumption. The semiconductor industry had been scaling metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) for more than four decades until the early 2000s, when further scaling of traditional silicon dioxide/polysilicon materials presented leakage problems. New materials and structures would be needed for continued progress, and Intel’s Technology and Manufacturing Group was first to meet the challenge with its introduction of high-k metal gate transistors and then with its tri-gate (FinFET) technology. Intel replaced most of the traditional dielectric MOSFET materials with a high-k hafnium-based dielectric to reduce leakage power, and metal gate electrode materials replaced doped polysilicon to provide improved transistor performance. Intel was the first to manufacture and ship these high-k metal gate transistors, beginning with its 45 nm technology in 2007. Intel then overcame the manufacturing challenges of using tri-gate transistors to surpass the limitations of planar MOSFETs. Tri-gate transistors feature channels on tall and narrow silicon fins instead of a planar surface. With a steeper subthreshold slope, tri-gate transistors result in lower power leakage and can operate at lower voltage for lower active power consumption. Intel was the first to ship microprocessors using tri-gate transistors in 2011 with its 22 nm technology. Intel's manufacturing success with these transistor technologies fundamentally changed the direction of the semiconductor industry. Other semiconductor companies have followed Intel’s footsteps in developing high-k and tri-gate products, and foundry companies have accelerated efforts to meet the fabrications needs of their customers.
Headquartered in Santa Clara, CA, USA, Intel’s Technology and Manufacturing Group is led by Sohail U. Ahmed, senior vice president and general manager, and Ann B. Kelleher, corporate vice president and general manager.
For pioneering innovation, development, and deployment of Flash Memory Technology, which has profoundly changed the world
SanDisk Corporation (NASDAQ: SNDK), a Fortune 500 and S&P 500 company, is a global leader in flash storage solutions whose innovations have transformed the consumer electronics market for more than a quarter-century. Founded by three engineers in Silicon Valley more than 26 years ago, SanDisk is a flash storage pioneer that has remained deeply committed to engineering and innovation. SanDisk’s portfolio of more than 5,000 patents includes flash storage innovations that have enabled new markets and devices—from digital photography to USB drives to smartphones, tablets, and thin-and-light notebooks. Increasingly, SanDisk is also focused on transforming the data center.
The SanDisk IP portfolio includes pivotal patents in flash memory device and design, process technology, packaging, test, applications, and system-level technologies. SanDisk’s patented advancements also enabled the company to introduce the industry’s first multi-level cell (MLC) flash technologies using two bits (X2) and three bits (X3) per cell. These innovations have helped drive the wide adoption and proliferation of flash memory. They have also helped SanDisk to chronicle numerous impactful “firsts” throughout its history. In 2015 alone, the company introduced the world’s highest-capacity microSD™ UHS-I card and a break-through all-flash storage system for the data center that can offer up to a half of petabyte of storage. It also announced the successful development of the world’s first 48-layer second-generation 3D NAND (developed through joint ventures with Toshiba).
Today, SanDisk continues to expand the possibilities of storage. SanDisk’s quality, state-of-the-art solutions are at the heart of many of the world's largest data centers and are embedded in advanced smartphones, tablets, and PCs. SanDisk’s consumer products are available at hundreds of thousands of retail stores worldwide.
With headquarters based in Milpitas, CA, USA, and offices located around the world, SanDisk is led by Sanjay Mehrotra, who co-founded the company in 1988 and currently serves as president and chief executive officer.
For many decades driving world-changing technological innovations
The visionary innovations conceived or funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) have changed society for the better around the world. Established in 1958 with the mission of reducing “technological surprise” for the U.S. military by developing technology first, DARPA’s contributions to cutting-edge technology have impacted peoples’ lives beyond defense applications. The birth of companies and in some cases entire industries have resulted from DARPA-funded projects. The creation of the first wide-area, packet-switched communications network using computers running similar software and switching protocols, known as ARPANet, during the 1980s was the precursor to the Internet that we know today. DARPA also drove the fundamental technologies for triangulating satellite signals with accurate clocking for global positioning systems. It also enabled the miniaturization of devices to create small, battery-powered GPS receivers, first for military platforms but now also pervasive in our automobiles and recreational gadgets. Research sponsored by DARPA also resulted in the computer-aided design tools that spurred the rebirth of the semiconductor industry in the U.S. and enabled creation and continued scaling of the more complex and powerful chips found in our computers and mobile devices. DARPA’s contributions also include the creation of microelectromechanical systems combining sensors, actuators, and computing elements for applications such as air-bag sensors. The United States has enjoyed a substantial advantage in electronic warfare over the past several decades thanks to DARPA-sponsored innovations. DARPA’s successes in the military arena include major breakthroughs in radar, radio, directed energy, positioning/navigation/timing, cyber, sensing, engineered biology, intelligence/surveillance/reconnaissance, command/control/communications, electronic warfare, manufacturing, photonics, and thermal management. DARPA’s current research focus is on areas including processing information at a massive scale, biology as technology, and rethinking complex systems.
Located in Arlington, VA, USA, DARPA is under the direction of IEEE Fellow Dr. Arati Prabhakar.
A global technology leader, Applied Materials, Inc., has employed its expertise in semiconductor manufacturing to provide innovative solutions for more than 20 years that have driven continued advancements in flat panel display technologies. Virtually every thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT LCD) produced has passed through Applied’s equipment. The company’s PECVD technology has made televisions, tablets, and smartphones more powerful, affordable, and accessible to consumers throughout the world, and has played a key role in decreasing the cost per area of flat screen televisions by 95% over the past decade.
Applied’s innovations over the past two decades to provide a rapid, cost-effective path to bring advanced display technology to market include:
• the AKT Remote Plasma Source cleaning technology developed in 1999, which dramatically increased yield and productivity compared to existing alternatives and enabled the TFT-LCD to become the first flat panel display technology to challenge the display market dominance of the cathode ray tube;
• the AKT-APX TM gas showerhead and RF electrode solution, introduced in 2004 to overcome the prevailing industry roadblock to using larger glass sizes by improving film uniformity and allowing higher deposition rates, ultimately making TFT LCDs scalable to future generations with no foreseeable limit;
• the AKT 90K-PECVD system, the industry’s largest, most advanced PECVD platform, introduced in 2008, processes substrates greater than 9m2 in area and less than 1 millimeter thick, which enables production of up to six 65-inch LCD television screens per substrate;
• PECVD silicon dioxide film technology, introduced in 2012, to enable the use of metal-oxide semiconductors to generate more energy-efficient, faster-switching pixels for higher performance, higher-resolution displays for next-generation tablet computers and TVs.
Headquartered in Santa Clara, CA, USA, Applied Materials has a global footprint spanning 90 locations across 19 countries. The company is led by Chairman and CEO Mike Splinter and President Gary Dickerson. John White, vice president of engineering and product technology for Applied’s Display Products Group, is attending the ceremony and accepting the award on the company’s behalf.
Panasonic Corporation’s development of HIT (heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer) solar cell technology has provided the high performance and efficiency needed to advance the ability to harvest solar power as a renewable energy source. An important step in the evolution of photovoltaic technology, Panasonic’s Sanyo Electric arm developed the HIT solar cell in 1990 and guided it to commercialization in 1997. Prior to HIT, most solar cells employed crystalline silicon, which was easy to fabricate but provided low performance. Key to the success of Panasonic’s HIT process is the heterojunction between amorphous silicon and crystalline silicon. This provides higher conversion efficiency while still employing a simple fabrication process for cost effectiveness. The high-conversion HIT solar cells can provide more electricity from a smaller number of solar panels compared to traditional technology, which is important to customers in urban areas where roof space for panel installation can be limited. In September 2011, Panasonic reported a conversion efficiency of 23.7%, which was the highest for a HIT solar cell of practical size. Another advantage of the HIT solar cell is its ability to maintain higher efficiency even at higher temperatures compared to conventional solar cells. Panasonic’s HIT symmetrical structure also makes it less susceptible to the bending/breakage from thermal damage seen in conventional cells.
Panasonic Corporation, which will celebrate its 100th anniversary in 2018, is committed to the sustainable use of the earth’s resources. Masato Ito currently serves as Executive Officer of Panasonic Corporation and President of Panasonic’s Energy Company. Panasonic Corporation is based in Osaka, Japan.
Founded in 1984, imec has tackled the roadblocks to continued scaling of transistor size with innovations in CMOS integrated circuit development that have led to more powerful computers and consumer electronics. Key to imec’s success is its distinctive model of collaboration with industrial partners through strategic industrial affiliation programs. This allows industry to share talent and intellectual property (IP) and to reduce risk through co-investment and ultimately accelerate research using imec’s pilot lines. Imec has also an extensive library of IP, know-how that can be transferred or tuned to the needs of company. In 2004, imec created a sub-32-nm research platform for 300-mm silicon wafers built around state-of-the-art equipment. Together with world-leading semiconductor manufacturers, foundries, and equipment and material suppliers, this research resulted in world-record SRAM cells. Today, imec continues to innovate, moving below the 22-nm dimension and toward 450-mm wafers for further improvements in integrated circuit performance and exploring three-dimensional silicon technologies. Based on its silicon process technology expertise, imec is now working on the base technology needed to improve power electronics, using gallium nitride as its material of choice. Imec also applies its semiconductor process technology expertise to develop innovative silicon solar cells with higher efficiency and lower cost. Imec’s research on integrated CMOS and microelectromechanical systems technologies integrated on top of CMOS has led to a heterogeneous integration platform offering companies development-on-demand, prototyping, and small volume production of innovative products combining various state-of-the-art technologies. Imec’s healthcare research resulted already in intelligent body-area networks with wireless sensors, such as EEG or ECG, which allow ambulatory monitoring of people to increase the comfort level of patients.
With headquarters in Leuven, Belgium, and a staff of about 1,900 people, imec has offices in Belgium, the Netherlands, Taiwan, the United States, China, and Japan. Dr. Luc Van den hove is imec’s current president and chief executive officer.
Samsung Electronics’ Mobile WiMAX technology is changing how and where the world accesses data in mobile environments. Samsung introduced Mobile WiMAX technology in 2005 and it is now in use throughout the world. Mobile WiMAX offers the benefits of wired high-speed Internet and wireless local area network systems, but without their inherent restrictions, to provide seamless wireless broadband services in a truly mobile environment. Samsung’s technology is instrumental in providing broader Internet access within developing countries. Areas with weak or nonexistent wire-line infrastructure can take advantage of mobile broadband access without having to dig ground or build wire-line networks. Populations who may not have been able to afford desktop computers or expensive access fees can now access the Internet with less-expensive hand-held devices. In countries with established infrastructures, Mobile WiMAX presents opportunities for enhanced services such as video streaming, interactive television, real-time gaming, and mass Web browsing and e-mail access. Despite early opposition from existing technologies, Samsung continued to invest in Mobile WiMAX and has become a major equipment supplier, with pioneering products including PC cards, USB adapters, ultramobile PCs and laptops, and multimode smart phones. Samsung is a member of the WiMAX Forum, a nonprofit group that promotes and certifies WiMAX products and services.
With headquarters located in Korea, the company consists of seven independently operated business units (Visual Display, Mobile Communications, Telecommunication Systems, Digital Appliances, IT Solutions, Semiconductor, and LCD) with 179 offices across 61 countries.
Corning Incorporated, world leader in specialty glass and ceramics, is internationally known for its innovations and accomplishments in optical fiber technology. Corning Incorporated applies science and engineering to enable high-technology systems in areas such as consumer electronics, telecommunications and life sciences.
Corning Incorporated’s latest innovation in optical fiber technology overcomes the signal loss inherent with standard optical fiber when it is bent around tight corners, which is a hindrance to installing fiber cables in multiple dwelling units such as apartments or condominiums. Corning’s groundbreaking ClearCurve® optical fiber is 100 times more flexible than standard optical fiber but with virtually no signal loss. The bend performance is achieved by using engineered “nanoStructures” in a controlled mesh configuration within the fiber cladding. By making fundamental changes in the way light travels in the fiber, Corning was able to trap the light in the core of the fiber, where it is supposed to travel and virtually eliminating signal loss when the fiber bends. ClearCurve was introduced to market in 2007 and was named one of Time magazine’s “Best Inventions of the Year.”
Among Corning’s many pioneering advances in optical fiber technology, it invented the first low-loss glass optical fiber, which reduced attenuation loss and made glass fibers practical for telecommunications systems, and the “large effective area fiber” (LEAF), which implemented a larger core size to reduce nonlinear effects, enabling rapid advancements in long haul telecommunications systems. With headquarters located in Corning, New York, Corning Incorporated continues to provide real-world solutions to life through its research and manufacturing capabilities.
IBM T.J. Watson Research Center’s pioneering techniques and continued innovations over the last 35 years have made speech recognition applications an indispensable part of everyday life. IBM T.J. Watson Research Center was established in 1961 and has its main laboratory in Yorktown Heights, New York. Its research ranges from exploratory work in the physical sciences to semiconductors and systems technology to software for security, programming, mathematics, and speech technologies.
IBM commercialized the technology in the 1990s with its Simply Speaking and ViaVoice products, allowing PC-based dictation enabling users to create documents without typing. In 2003 IBM introduced an embedded version of ViaVoice providing fully integrated automatic speech recognition to enable interaction for small mobile devices such as voice-directed applications in automobiles. In early 2000s IBM delivered Websphere Voice Server, a telephony version of its speech recognition technology, for call center interaction applications such as directory assistance. IBM’s worldwide R&D labs have ported these products to a variety of languages and domains.
IBM has also combined speech technologies with other technologies in innovative fashions. IBM’s speech translation applications are used by the U.S. military to more easily communicate with the native population using portable computers. IBM has augmented speech recognition with video information that captures lip movements to enhance recognition performance in noisy environments. IBM continues to advance the speech recognition area by developing promising research directions such as discriminative training concepts, statistical language model estimation and discriminative feature extraction to improve overall performance.
Waterloo, Ontario-based Research In Motion Limited (RIM) helped advance wireless technology with the introduction of the BlackBerry wireless solution in 1999, the world?s first handheld, integrated, wireless e-mail system.The BlackBerry device included an address book, calendar, and to-do list, but its breakthrough characteristic was its ability to send and receive e-mail by accessing the wireless networks of cellular phone carriers. Since that time, RIM has expanded the BlackBerry platform to offer some of the most advanced smartphones on the market today for corporations as well as individuals around the world. Without compromising the BlackBerry solution?s core attributes, RIM has continued to innovate and enhance the BlackBerry product line and lead the wireless industry.
The BlackBerry solution has cultivated a reputation for its pushemail, security, reliability, and durability that has led to the worldwide adoption of BlackBerry by local, state and federal governments and Fortune 500 corporations, which rely on BlackBerry to efficiently facilitate communication within their organizations.
Adoption of the BlackBerry has been explosive. Within five years of its release, by early 2004, RIM had reached one million subscribers, and by November, 2004, there were two million, having doubled within ten months. Today, there are over 14 million subscribers, with BlackBerry being available from over 350 carriers and channels in over 135 countries.
The Toyota Motor Corporation created the Toyota Hybrid System (THS) to address many critical issues afflicting the world today: petroleum depletion, global warming and air pollution.
THS combines an on-board rechargeable energy storage system that is re-energized using the kinetic energy from the vehicle and a fueled power source for drive and added power. Unlike other hybrids, Toyota’s THS has the ability to run solely on battery power, during which time it is a zero emission vehicle. Other advantages include surpassing severe emission standards and doubling the fuel efficiency of a conventional vehicle of the same class.
Additionally, since THS components were required to be more compact with higher performance and higher reliance than conventional mass-produced electronic components, suppliers developed complementary component technology. Resulting innovations include advances in power electronics; improved nickel metal hydride battery technology; and advanced control systems, energy recovery (regenerative) braking systems, and fuel efficiency technologies.
Toyota made its THS technology available to the general public though the launch of the world’s first mass-produced hybrid automobile, Prius, in 1997. Since the introduction of THS, Toyota has developed nine models and sold over 800,000 vehicles by the end of 2006.
Toyota plans to continue developing technological advancements to benefit the automotive and electronic industries; making THS technology available to a variety of alternative energy industries including fuel cell, electric and bio-fuel.
Texas Instruments established the DLP Products division in 1993 to unleash the potential of one scientist’s vision for an all-digital optical device that would enable light to be manipulated with previously unimaginable accuracy and speed. The technology is used in a range of projection and display applications, including business projectors, home theater applications, and commercial entertainment products. A version of DLP technology known as DLP Cinema® technology is being used to replace celluloid-based projectors in movie theaters around the world.
The formation of DLP Products represents the largest internally funded program in Texas Instrument’s 76-year history, and marked the first time any company has attempted to independently commercialize a completely new display technology. Since the first products using DLP were introduced in 1996, Texas Instruments has sold in excess of 10 million DLP chips, with the technology being used in more than half of all front-projection display devices.
At the core of DLP is the digital micro-mirror device (DMD) invented by Dr. Larry Hornbeck at Texas Instruments in 1987, an optical switch semiconductor that contains a rectangular array of up to one million hinged, microscopic mirrors. This optical switch is mounted on a standard memory cell to form the DLP chip.
DLP technology has solidified a strong presence in the consumer electronics marketplace in the current and next-generation product lines of leading electronics companies including Samsung, Toshiba, Hewlett-Packard, Dell and Panasonic.
ARM Limited, headquartered in Cambridge, England, was formed with technology from Acorn Computers Limited and investments from Apple and VLSI Technology, Inc. Working from a business model that fostered intellectual property (IP) licensing and design reuse, ARM grew from a 12-person joint-venture spin-off in 1990 to the market leader in the 32-bit embedded RISC processor marketplace. Its processors are found in a wide variety of popular consumer electronics products including mobile telephones, digital cameras, digital music players, DSL modems and personal digital assistants (PDAs).
The IP licensing model that drove this success calls for business partners to purchase a ?right to use? license up-front and then pay a per-use royalty. The up-front license fee created a strong cash flow even as it shared the cost of developing and implementing new processors and software support tools across a wide customer base.
In developing its unique business model, ARM led the way in making design reuse a practical and achievable reality. It partners with major semiconductor companies worldwide who, in exchange for the license and royalty fees, manufacture their own designs based on one or more ARM processors. This model has reduced investment in the semiconductor industry substantially by eliminating duplicate embedded processor design activities.
ARM's business model has been fostered by its ability to develop technology that keeps its processors in the forefront of software support, on-chip debugging, chip buses and interconnect technology, code density and power efficiency.
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. of Sunnyvale, California, created and designed the AMD64 platform with Direct Connect Architecture to provide a superior computing experience that touches the enterprise, enthusiast and everyday consumer. By evolving the industry-standard 32-bit x86 architecture to a 64-bit level, AMD has created a new ecosystem within which hardware and software suppliers can provide solutions supporting backwards-compatible 64-bit computing. AMD64 processors,which includes the AMD Opteron™, the AMD Athlon™ 64 and the AMDAthlon™ 64 FX processors, enables users from Forbes Global 100 companies to home PC users to capture extraordinary 32-bit and 64-bit software application performance, and also allow a simplified migration path to 64-bit applications for those who are not using 64-bit today, performing 32-bit processor today with the capability for 64-bit computing tomorrow.AMD worked with experts from the hardware and software communities, refining and revising framework and processor applications to deliver a new line of next-generation processors.
The AMD64 platform encourages migration to more powerful 64-bit applications and provides a new revenue market for major software and hardware customers seeking to extend the life and performance of the x86 instruction set. In creating a new computing path, AMD helped leverage and extend the value of the billions of dollars invested by the semiconductor industry over the past 30 years. It gives consumers affordable and unparalleled 32-bit computing power, as well as a simple way to transition to 64-bit technology when they need additional performance and functionality.
NTT DoCoMo, Inc.
NTT DoCoMo, Inc., located in Tokyo, Japan, is the world's leading mobile communications company and the developer of i-mode, a breakthrough mobile internet platform that enables email usage and Internet access via mobile phones. This service has created the mobile Internet community and a new culture of text-based communications. Through a carefully planned business model, NTT DoCoMo collaborated with handset manufacturers, content providers and related platforms to ensure the wireless technology,content and user experience inherent in i-mode would evolve at an optimal pace. The launch of i-mode and its rapid growth in popularity have been critical in creating the mobile Internet industry. The result is a service embraced by nearly 50 million mobile phone subscribers, including many who do not use personal computers. The i-mode service developed by NTT DoCoMo has evolved to encompass such advanced capabilities as JAVA, Flash,and FeliCa technology,which allow for i-mode's use in automobile navigation, electronic billing and mobile commerce. Universal mobile content, such as audiofile download and picture download, has been developed and popularized.
The company also implemented advanced spam filtering technologies for i-mode, including a "Access Modification" content filtering service for children called Kids i-mode. NTT DoCoMo established an i-mode business model that provides strong benefits for operators, hardware manufacturers, content providers and even end-users. New revenue sources have been created by data transmission services using the online content of operators who benefit in turn from revenue from outsourced collections.