Known for his ability to reduce complicated theory and apply it to real-world challenges, Tapan Kumar Sarkar is bridging the gap between electromagnetics and communication systems to modernize applications ranging from wave propagation, wireless signal processing, futuristic radar systems, and smart antennas using real-time adaptive systems. He developed novel techniques for the solution of extremely large problems on parallel out-of-core solvers having millions of unknowns with reduced computational resources, a breakthrough in scientific computations. This helped the design of antennas for early warning radar systems and ultrawideband antenna systems, electrical characterization of printed circuits, and design of complex microwave systems with less interference. He has also applied electromagnetic technology to improve detection of improvised explosive devices in war zones and to improve food processing and evaluation.
An IEEE Life Fellow, Sarkar is a professor with the College of Engineering and Computer Science at Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA.
One of the world's most influential and pioneering researchers in electromagnetics, Richard W. Ziolkowski’s contributions to metamaterials and localized wave phenomena have enabled novel applications for wireless and optical technologies. Metamaterials are engineered to provide smart properties not found in natural materials. Ziolkowski has exploited their capabilities for blocking, absorbing, enhancing, or bending electromagnetic waves to achieve benefits beyond what is possible with conventional materials. He has demonstrated the usefulness of metamaterials for wireless antenna topologies that are portable, small, multiband, and highly efficient. Ziolkowski also led the realization of localized wave phenomenon where electromagnetic power can be beamed over relatively long distances with less rapid intensity decay. His findings in this area have substantial current relevance to wireless power transfer applications.
An IEEE Fellow, Ziolkowski is a Distinguished Professor with the University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, Australia.
With over 50 years of theoretical and technological innovations, Tatsuo Itoh is among the most famous and respected experts in electromagnetics and microwave techniques. He extended electromagnetic simulation to high-frequency applications, developing models that allow inclusion of relevant interactions between microwave circuit elements, their packaging, and the electromagnetic environment. His comprehensive field-based approach to global modeling helped establish the system-in-package concept important to smart phones. Itoh’s spectral domain method for microwave circuit analysis has become one of the most popular techniques for computer-aided design of microwave components. Recent achievements include realizing metamaterials enabling leaky-wave antennas that can continuously scan from the backward wave region to the forward wave region as a function of frequency.
An IEEE Life Fellow, Itoh is a Distinguished Professor and the Northrop Grumman Chair in Electrical Engineering at University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Weng Cho Chew’s pioneering contributions to computational electromagnetics have made solutions to large real-world problems possible, greatly impacting a diverse range of fields including device design, antennas, and photonics. Among Chew’s fast solvers that make it possible to simulate the electromagnetic behavior of structures of unprecedented size, his multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) changed the size of problems that can be solved by six orders of magnitude, permitting the solution of problems of enormous geometrical complexity. Chew’s numerical mode matching method has become the standard technology in electromagnetic well logging tools for the oil industry and is also used to solve microwave and optical waveguide problems. His distorted Born iterative method for multiple scattering inverse problems and multiphysics methods are impacting disciplines beyond electromagnetics.
An IEEE Fellow, Chew is a Fisher Distinguished Professor of Engineering with the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA.
Giorgio Franceschetti has helped advance the field of electromagnetics through innovative research and high-level teaching covering diverse areas ranging from electromagnetic propagation in complex environments to wireless transmission power. Franceschetti introduced the study of electromagnetic fields and waves to Italian universities in 1965 and established an outstanding research community. His contributions to synthetic aperture radar technologies have been successfully used for imaging the Earth’s surface from space. His work on the degrees of freedom involving scattering fields has enabled more accurate sampling, which has impacted electromagnetic imaging. As recognition of his long-lasting impact on electromagnetics, the November/December 2014 issue of the Forum for Electromagnetic Research Methods and Application Technologies (Vol. 6, http://www.e-fermat.org/, NEWS&VIEWS) was dedicated to Franceschetti and contains a salute, and a tribute to his accomplishments.
An IEEE Life Fellow, Franceschetti is a Professor Emeritus with the University Federico II, Naples, Italy.
One of the most cited researchers in computer science, Donald R. Wilton has been instrumental in the fundamental development of computational electromagnetics (CEM), an important tool for the design and modeling of systems on scales ranging from nanophotonics and integrated circuits to aircraft scattering and space station antennas. His development of the Rao Wilton Glisson (RWG) family of basis functions has shaped integral equation-based CEM for over 30 years. RWG functions are used by literally thousands of researchers and practitioners today. Prior to Prof. Wilton’s work, electromagnetic simulation tools played only a very limited role in the design of complex electromagnetic systems due to large computer memory requirements and inaccuracies. He is also one of the major technical contributors to the EIGER software tool set for performing government mission-critical electromagnetic analyses using moment-method solutions of integral equations.
An IEEE Life Fellow, Dr. Wilton is a Professor Emeritus with the University of Houston, TX, USA.
Allen Taflove is considered the researcher most responsible for the worldwide use of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods for solving scientific and engineering problems involving electromagnetic wave interactions with material objects. Since 1972, his FDTD research has pioneered fundamental theory, algorithms, and applications of the numerical technique for Maxwell’s equations published by K.S. Yee in 1966. Through Prof. Taflove’s research, FDTD has become the primary method to model complex electromagnetic interactions ranging across the spectrum from ultralow-frequency geophysical phenomena spanning the entire Earth to nanometer-scale photonics. His publication, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, is the seventh most-cited book in physics.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Taflove is a professor of electrical engineering and computer science at Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA. Here, he is applying FDTD to develop novel hyperspectral microscopy techniques for early detection of deadly human cancers.
Leung Tsang’s pioneering statistical electromagnetic and microwave remote sensing theories have profoundly impacted the fundamental understanding of how microwaves interact with complex geophysical environments. Airborne and satellite remote sensing technologies are central to research in environmental issues such as global climate change and monitoring of Earth’s water and carbon cycles. Dr. Tsang’s models provide pivotal understanding for wave propagation in dense media, random media, rough surfaces, backscattering enhancement, clustered particles, multiple scattering, and four Stokes parameters in thermal emission. His theories have set the standards for active and passive microwave remote sensing of terrestrial and polar snow, soil moisture, vegetation, forest, ice, and ocean wind and foam.
An IEEE Fellow, OSA Fellow, and recipient of the 2012 William T. Pecora Award, Leung Tsang is an electrical engineering professor at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
One of the top 50 leaders in science and technology according to Scientific American magazine, Nader Engheta’s pioneering work has profoundly impacted electromagnetics and spurred the growth of many subdisciplines such as metamaterials, nanoscale optics, bio-inspired imaging, and fractional electromagnetics. Dr. Engheta paved the way to the characterization of metamaterials with groundbreaking electromagnetics concepts during the 1990s. He formalized wave propagation in chiral materials and developed the omega media concept, both fundamental to the development and operation of most metamaterials. One of his trailblazing contributions was the development of the new area of optical metatronics, i.e., metamaterial-based optical nanocircuitry. These circuits operate via light at the nanoscale using lumped-element metamaterial nanostructures as inductors and capacitors. Dr. Engheta also contributed to producing metamaterial lenses that can go beyond the diffraction limit inherent to conventional optical lenses. He proposed a far-field super lens made out of shells of alternating dielectric and plasmonic materials capable of projecting a super-resolution image to the far field.
An IEEE Fellow, Guggenheim Fellow, and a Fellow of four other scientific organizations (APS, OSA, AAAS, and SPIE), Dr. Engheta is currently the H. Nedwill Ramsey Professor of Electrical and Systems Engineering and a Professor of Bioengineering at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Yahya Rahmat-Samii’s pioneering contributions to developing sophisticated antennas can be seen in billions of cell phones, millions of satellite dish antennas, and space technology for remote sensing and planetary missions. Dr. Rahmat-Samii developed innovative methods for analyzing and designing modern reflector antennas important to NASA’s space research. He was one of the inventors of the plane-polar near-field technique used to measure the performance of the Galileo spacecraft antenna. He was a principal developer of the microwave holographic diagnostic technique used to improve the performance of NASA’s Deep Space Network. His important research on how electromagnetic waves interact with human tissue led to the development of internal antennas for cellular phones that are a key component of modern handsets. His work on genetic and particle swarm algorithms for electromagnetic optimization has been successfully used by universities and companies designing antennas for wireless communications.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Rahmat-Samii is the Northrop Grumman Chair Distinguished Professor at the University of California, Los Angeles.
An applied mathematician and researcher of over 50 years, Thomas B.A. Senior has performed pioneering work in radar cross section (RCS) control, a measurement of how detectable on object is by radar. He created many of the analytical tools needed to predict how RCS reduction can be accomplished using shaping and radar-absorbing materials. Important to stealth aircraft development, which requires a low RCS measure, his findings have played a leading role in current RCS technology.
Dr. Senior demonstrated how radar-absorbing coatings, smooth surfaces and body angles designed to scatter radar waves away from a receiver enable a low RCS. He was the first to recognize how large wind turbines can cause interference to electromagnetic systems, such as television, and developed procedures that are now part of all environmental assessments of these machines.
An IEEE Life Fellow, Dr. Senior is currently an Emeritus Professor with the University of Michigan’s Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.
Kenneth K. Mei is one of the most innovative researchers in computational electromagnetics. His work over four decades has led to solutions in electromagnetic problems that would have otherwise been too large even for computers to handle.
Dr. Mei?s Ph.D. work on formulating Maxwell?s equations into integral equations, now known as the ?method of moments,? is credited as the beginning of the era of computational electromagnetics and perhaps one of the most important and widely used numerical analysis techniques for analyzing scattering, antenna and microstrip circuit problems. He was able to show that there are circuits whose solutions should be identical to the solutions of Maxwell?s equations of the same problem, which better demonstrates correct behavior at both low and high frequencies. This will play an important role in keeping devices small even as the integrated circuit technology itself reaches its size reduction limits.
An IEEE Life Fellow, Mei is an honorary professor at the City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, an adjunct professor at Shanghai University of China and Professor Emeritus at the UC, Berkeley.
Werner Wiesbeck’s research on the application of electromagnetics and antennas resulted in many commercial software products and architectures in use today in the European wireless and automotive markets. Early in his career, he was one of the first to develop numerical tools for the calculation of electromagnetic fields that he later applied to the design of planar microstrip circuits and different types of antennas. These later became parts of radar and communications systems. Dr. Wiesbeck’s research on remote sensing, specializing in high-resolution radars with digital beam-forming, gave him a leading position in the design of mono- and dual-polarization, wideband to ultra-wideband antennas. Dr. Wiesbeck is the director of the Institut für Hoechstfrequenztechnik und Elektronik at the University of Karlsruhe, Germany.
An IEEE Fellow, he has received a number of awards, including four prize paper awards and the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Distinguished Achievement Award.
Dr. Baum is a distinguished research professor in the department of electrical and computer engineering at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. He is most famous for developing the Singularity Expansion Method (SEM), which compactly and parametrically represents the late-time electromagnetic scattering and gives an aspect-independent radar signature for target identification. He also introduced the concepts of natural frequencies, natural modes, and coupling coefficients that could be computed from an integral equation to concisely represent experimental data.
Dr. Baum is an authority on electromagnetic pulse simulation (EMP) and has designed simulators for testing various electromagnetic systems used by the U.S. Air Force as well as allied and friendly countries. His excellent design of a special class of antennas, used for accurate transient/broadband measurements of electromagnetic fields and related parameters, are now in standard use by the EMP community in both the U.S. and Western Europe.
Professor of Electrical Engineering and director of the Electromagnetic Communications Laboratory at Penn State University in University Park, Pennsylvania, Raj Mittra has made fundamental contributions to electromagnetics through his research skills and as a mentor to those studying in the field. His research revolutionized computational electromagnetics, resulting in many antenna, radome, scattering and microwave applications. Dr. Mittra was among the first to recognize the computer's potential for solving large-scale electromagnetic problems. He was also a contributing editor of “Computer Techniques for Electromagnetics,” the first definitive book on computational electromagnetics. His seminal work on finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methodology created a number of novel FDTD techniques, such as the conformal FDTD method. In addition, his approach to evaluating the radiation integrals of reflector antennas led to the design of large and complex antennas involving single and multiple reflectors and normal and offset feeds. Dr. Mittra pioneered generalized scattering matrix analysis, which dramatically improved the efficiency and numeral stability of the Moment Method and other techniques for solving integral equations. He is responsible for more than 30 new methods for solving scattering problems, other numerical methods and antenna designs. He also developed original approaches for analyzing scattering by periodic structures. At Penn State and as a professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at the University of Illinois, Dr Mittra was an advisor to more than 85 doctoral and 85 master's degree candidates. Many of his students went on to make significant contributions to the fields of antennas, propagation and electromagnetics. He has published 35 books or book chapters. As principal author of “Imaging with Coherent Fields,” he investigated the role of electromagnetic fields in holography, sparking research into microwave holography and significant new directions in inverse scattering and coherent acoustical imaging.
An IEEE Life Fellow, Dr. Mittra is the former president of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society and was the editor of IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation. He is President of RM Associates, a consulting organization providing services to industrial and governmental organizations worldwide. Dr. Mittra received his bachelor’s degree in physics from Agra University in India, his master’s degree in radio physics from the University of Calcutta, and his doctoral degree in electrical engineering from the University of Toronto in Canada.
A world-renowned authority in electromagnetic theory, Dr. Clayton R. Paul, Sam Nunn Eminent Professor of Aerospace Engineering and professor of electrical and computer engineering at Mercer University in Macon, Georgia, has been responsible for many seminal advancements in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). His contributions in modeling and quantifying interference on cabling between systems have laid the foundation for today's benchmark methods used for assessing and mitigating electromagnetic interference (EMI) in complex wire and cable arrangements. He is professor emeritus of electrical engineering at the University of Kentucky, where he served on the electrical engineering faculty for 27 years. His course on EMC at this university was among the first of its kind. He has published 15 textbooks and more than 150 papers and reports.
A Fellow of the IEEE, Dr. Paul is the only two-time recipient of the IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Society's Richard Stoddard Award for Outstanding Performance. He is also an honorary life member of the IEEE EMC Society.
Dr. Jin Au Kong's impact on electromagnetics research and education has been monumental. His work on microwave remote sensing, particularly the development of coherent transport techniques for both active and passive remote sensing problems revolutionized applications such as microstrip antennas, geophysical probing, superconductivity, EMC/EMI design, microwave circuits and rough surface scattering. He is the primary organizer of the Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium, a key discussion forum for electromagnetic research. A Fellow of IEEE and the Optical Society of America, Dr. Kong has published more than 30 books, and more than 600 refereed journal articles, book chapters and conference papers. His awards include the S.T. Li Prize and the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society's Distinguished Achievement Award.
A professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts since 1969, he is editor for the Wiley series on remote sensing, the Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications.
Considered by many to be at the forefront of his field, Leopold B. Felsen has greatly impacted the course of modern electromagnetic (EM) theory, methodology, and phenemonology. His text, Radiation and the Scattering of Waves, co-authored with Nathan Marcuvitz, has become a much-cited classic due to its presentation of a unified spectral methodology for EM analysis. He also played a major role in bridging the gap between electromagnetics and other wave-based disciplines, such as optics, structural, and ocean acoustics, and geophysics. He has written or co-written over 350 journal papers and several books.
A Life Fellow of the IEEE and Fellow of the Optic Society of America, and the Acoustical Society of America, his many awards include the Balthasar van der Pol Gold Medal and the IEEE Heinrich Hertz medal Dr. Felsen is a professor of aerospace and mechanical engineering and electrical and computer engineering at Boston University and professor emeritus at Polytechnic University in Brooklyn, NY.
Dr. Robert C. Hansen’s unusually deep understanding of theory and unique gift of communicating complex concepts clearly combine to make him a highly influential figure in the fields of phased array antennas, and superconducting, superdirective, and electrically small antennas. Dr. Hansen’s work with antennas spans more than fifty years. He has published more than 100 papers, numerous books, and has been an Associate Editor of Microwave Journal, Radio Science, and the Microwave Engineer’s Handbook. His three-volume text, Microwave Scanning Antennas, has been a fundamental reference on phased arrays for years. His other books include Significant Phased Array Papers, Geometric Theory of Diffraction, Moment Methods in Antennas and Scattering, and, most recently, Phased Array Antennas. Born in 1926, in St. Louis, Missouri, Robert C. Hansen received a B.S. from the Missouri School of Mines in Rolla, and his M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Illinois, Urbana. He started his career in 1945, as an electronic technician in the U.S. Navy. After five years in the University of Illinois Antenna Laboratory, he joined Hughes Aircraft, where he was section head in the Microwave Laboratory working on antennas. He joined Aerospace Corporation in 1961, where he was Associate Director of Satellite Control, then Director of the Test Mission Analysis Office, and finally Operations Group Director of the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Systems Engineering Office. From 1967 to 1970, he worked for KMS Industries in Ann Arbor, before becoming a full-time consulting engineer for antennas and systems related problems in 1971.
A Life Fellow of IEEE and a Fellow of IEE, Dr. Hansen has been President of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, Director of IEEE, and Chair of U.S. Commission B of URSI. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the American Physical Society, Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Xi, Eta Kappa Nu, and Phi Kappa Phi. His numerous honors include the IEEE AES Barry Carlton Best Paper Prize, the IEEE AP Society Distinguished Achievement Award, an honorary Doctorate from the University of Missouri-Rolla, a Distinguished Alumnus award from the University of Illinois Electrical Engineering Department, and a Distinguished Alumnus Service Medal from the College of Engineering.