2019 - Sir Robin Keith Saxby

Sir Robin Keith Saxby

One of the key engineers and innovators who enabled the smartphone revolution, Sir Robin Keith Saxby has helped change the way we communicate and do business by leading the company that developed what is perhaps the world’s most prolific microprocessor. Saxby was the founding CEO of Cambridge (U.K.)-headquartered startup ARM at the end of 1990 and developed it into one of the leading electronics intellectual property (IP) companies in the world. When ARM was formed as a joint venture between Acorn Computers and Apple, Saxby took 12 engineers from Acorn and, using a US$1.5M investment from Apple and US$250K from VLSI Technology, shaped them into one of the most formidable management teams in the industry. It is highly probable that your cell phone, tablet, laptop, smart watch, and the electronics in your automobile are powered by microprocessor architectures developed under Saxby’s leadership at ARM. Based on reduced instruction set computing (RISC) processing, ARM’s design used less power and cost than more complex designs used for PCs at the time, making them perfect for battery-powered consumer devices. Saxby introduced the licensing model for selling microprocessors and pioneered the concept of portable IP, with ARM licensing its microprocessor architecture and implementations to leading semiconductor and systems companies such as Intel, Sony, Philips, Samsung, Texas Instruments, Apple, and Motorola, and leading software companies including Microsoft. Today, the ARM microprocessor is integrated into more and more sophisticated chips, with an accelerating range of applications including digital cameras, games consoles, controllers for WiFi & Bluetooth systems, routers, and real-time automobile safety systems. Saxby also served as chairman of the Open Microprocessor Initiative, a European Union panel set up to advise on collaborative research and development activity in Europe. He was knighted by the Queen of England in 2002 for services to the information technology industry. Since his retirement from ARM, he has been dedicated to mentoring young entrepreneurs. He is also an angel investor for many U.K.-Headquartered technology startups.

A fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Royal Society (UK) Saxby is a visiting professor at the University of Liverpool, UK.

2018 - Narayana Murthy

Narayana Murthy

Narayana Murthy’s leadership in guiding Infosys from a start-up into a software engineering giant has served as the foundation of India’s role as a global superpower in information technology, and he has used the company’s success to give back to his native country. Murthy founded Infosys with six other colleagues in 1981 and developed it into what is today a US$35 billion software services company that has helped reshape the economic and social fabric of India. Key to the company’s success was Murthy’s Global Delivery Model (GDM), which is based on collaborative software development resulting in the on-time delivery of superior quality products to global customers within budget. GDM is the backbone of the Indian software industry and integral to the information technology outsourcing revolution. Under Murthy, Infosys became a role model for strong execution, product quality, corporate governance, and ethical practices with a culture of honesty, fairness, transparency, and meritocracy. Infosys’ pioneering stock options plan ensured that employees fully shared in the company’s success. Murthy also instituted an in-house training facility to provide quality skill development opportunities to keep up with rapid advances in technology. A generous philanthropist both institutionally and personally, Murthy established the Infosys Foundation to utilize a percentage of corporate profits to promote education, health, social welfare, destitute care, and culture programs in India. Through the Infosys Foundation, Murthy and his family have contributed heavily to assist the very poorest through access to better food, water, hygienic living conditions, education, and jobs. The Foundation has created libraries for poor children in 15,000 villages, has built hospitals and donated many sophisticated medical instruments, and has supported the largest free-lunch program in the world. Now retired, Murthy remains a strong voice for corporate ethics and social responsibility worldwide, while promoting stronger institutional governance in India.

An IEEE Honorary Member and fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering, Murthy is the founder of Infosys, Bengaluru, India.

2017 - Takeo Kanade

Takeo Kanade

Shaping the field of computer vision since its infancy, Takeo Kanade, beginning with his Ph.D. thesis in 1973 on computer face recognition, has demonstrated the real-world value of robotics to industries ranging from automotive to medical with concepts often ahead of their time. It was Kanade’s pioneering work since the mid 1980’s that paved the way for today’s driverless cars with one of the first demonstrations of robotics technology for a driverless vehicle. He incorporated computer vision systems and other sensors to detect lane lines and other cars and to control both steering and speed automatically. This culminated in 1995 with the NavLab autonomous land vehicle, which drove 3,000 miles across the United States under autonomous control. Kanade’s impact on medicine can be seen in his early image overlay system that gave surgeons x-ray-like vision in visualizing anatomic structures inside a patient. It was one of the first systems to demonstrate what is now commonly referred to as medical augmented reality, and this work was closely related to his development of the HipNav surgical navigation system for orthopedics research. In what he calls virtualized reality, Kanade developed the EyeVision camera system, in which a camera operated by one person drives 30 additional remote cameras to enable three-dimensional freeze-frame views of an activity. The successful debut of EyeVision at Super Bowl XXXV in 2001 brought enormous attention to computer vision and spurred research in the field. To address his lifelong passion for developing robotics to assist people in their everyday activities, Kanade led the creation of Quality of Life Technology Center at Carnegie Mellon University to help develop intelligent systems to transform the lives of people with disabilities or reduced capabilities due to aging.

An IEEE Fellow and member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, Kanade is the U.A. and Helen Whitaker University Professor of Computer Science and Robotics at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

2015 - James D. Plummer

James D. Plummer

James D. Plummer used his influence as the longest-serving dean of Stanford University’s School of Engineering to support and lead major innovations that have changed the way engineering research and teaching is carried out, impacting industry and academia worldwide. Serving as dean from 1999 through 2014, Dr. Plummer led the efforts at Stanford to build major interdisciplinary centers to address challenges facing engineering in areas including energy, the environment, and biomedicine. The Precourt Institute for Energy was developed to focus on energy efficiency, distribution, and generation and features researchers spanning the spectrum of engineering disciplines. The Woods Institute for the Environment was created to address issues in environmental sustainability and features environmental engineering faculty. He also established Stanford’s Bioengineering Department, jointly housed in the School of Engineering and the School of Medicine, to apply engineering principles to medical problems and biological systems. The Institute for Computational and Mathematical Engineering (ICME) was established to teach computational mathematics in the context of engineering and science applications and to provide a school-wide focus on applying computational methods in all areas of engineering and science. Other programs initiated during Dr. Plummer’s tenure include the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design, which is known globally for its hands-on, product-centered approach to education, and the Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP), which has provided resources to boost research in alternative energy. During Dr. Plummer’s tenure, other innovations in the Engineering School include the development of online education courses and technologies, including the “flipped classroom model,” where video lectures are viewed by students at home before the classroom session to allow focus on exercises and discussions while in class, as well as the world’s first massively open online courses (MOOCs) to provide unlimited participation and open access to learning through the Internet. Dr. Plummer’s contributions to Stanford’s School of Engineering have been instrumental in increasing the number of students choosing engineering majors, especially in computer science, product design, and bioengineering.

An IEEE Fellow and member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, Dr. Plummer holds the John Fluke Professorship in Electrical Engineering at Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

2014 - Eric Schmidt

Eric Schmidt

Eric Schmidt’s technical and business ingenuity has helped guide Google to its status of world’s premier search engine and one of the most successful information technology companies. With a visionary perspective of the Internet’s potential since its early days, Dr. Schmidt’s leadership at Google has provided technology that has revolutionized how the world seeks information and how people connect with each other. As chief executive officer from 2001 to 2011, Dr. Schmidt helped guide Google from a start-up company to provider of the Internet’s fastest and largest search engine used by hundreds of millions of people. He has been a driver of innovation, seeking methods to improve search performance and establishing features such as Google Maps and Gmail. Dr. Schmidt has helped grow the company that began by offering Web search in a single language into one that now offers dozens of products and services in many languages, including various forms of advertising and Web applications for diverse tasks. Today, Dr. Schmidt’s responsibilities at Google include building partnerships and broader business relationships, government outreach and technology thought leadership, and advising senior leadership on business and policy issues. With a career spanning over 30 years of technology development, management, and marketing contributions, Dr. Schmidt also coauthored the lexical analyzer for UNIX while at the University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. This program changed how software engineers approached the problem of creating compilers. As chief technology officer and corporate executive officer at Sun Microsystems from 1983 to 1997, Dr. Schmidt led the development of the Java platform-independent programming software that has become a key enabler of today’s Web-connected services.

An IEEE member and member of the US National Academy of Engineering, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (US), and the Prime Minister’s Advisory Council (UK), Dr. Schmidt is currently executive chairman at Google, Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA.

2013 - Leo L. Beranek

Leo L. Beranek

For over seven decades, Leo L. Beranek has made impactful contributions to acoustics and engineering as a scientist, author, teacher, and as an innovative leader of academia, scientific organizations, industry, and the arts. In 1948, Beranek and Richard Bolt founded Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. (BBN), a high-tech company with roots as an acoustical consulting firm that evolved into an important contributor of computer innovations. Under Beranek’s leadership, BBN pioneered the development of ARPANET, which was the precursor to today’s Internet. Known for a keen ability to recognize and engage the best talent for the task at hand, Beranek brought to BBN leaders in acoustics, artificial intelligence, computer science, and underwater sound. Beranek’s work on voice communications during World War II earned him recognition from President Harry S. Truman. His accomplishments with BBN include designing the sound system for the United Nations General Assembly Hall. He developed noise standards for jet airplanes during the 1950s that required planes to implement noise-reducing mufflers and alter take-off flight patterns. He helped set the standards for acceptable noise levels in office buildings, schools, and factories. Beranek also served as acoustical design consultant for concert halls and opera houses around the world, including the Tokyo Opera City Concert Hall, praised on the front page of the New York Times (April 18, 2000) as "an acoustical miracle."

An IEEE Life Fellow, Beranek’s honors include gold medals from the Acoustical Society of America (1975) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (2004) and the U.S. National Medal of Science (2003). Beranek is the founder (retired) of Bolt Beranek and Newman (now Raytheon BBN Technologies), Cambridge, MA, USA.

2012 - Faqir Chand Kohli

Photo of 2012 IEEE Founders Medal recipient Faqir Chand Kohli

Regarded as the “father” of India’s IT revolution, Faqir Chand Kohli’s vision and leadership helped drive India’s IT industry from a handful of computer professionals to a multibillion dollar industry with over 2 million highly trained professionals. He helped improve and develop the human resources required for successful computer hardware and software engineering growth in India and modernize India’s engineering curricula and facilities to support the IT industry’s growth. As Tata Consultancy Services’ first general manager, Dr. Kohli saw the potential software engineering held for utilizing India’s growing engineering talent. However, India did not have the necessary hardware to support such a vision early on. Dr. Kohli worked hard to develop deep technical strength at Tata by settling for nothing less than the state-of-the-art computer technology, which was crucial to offering quality IT services. Through Dr. Kohli’s efforts, India’s world-class IT services industry has become the country’s signature. Dr. Kohli has championed the use of technology to address social challenges. He designed a multimedia computing system to aid illiterate adults in Indian languages, which has been adopted by the Government of India. The system improves literacy within 30 hours of lessons and its success led to interest from South Africa in addressing several African languages. While significantly enabling India’s global emergence as a leader in business and technology, Kohli has also applied the benefits of technology to address issues ranging from adult illiteracy to modernizing and advancing India’s engineering curricula and facilities to support the engineering and IT industry’s growth. He has spurred a new generation of corporate social responsibility initiatives where professionals use their technological competencies to improve society.

An IEEE Life Fellow, Dr. Kohli is the former director and deputy chair of Tata Consultancy Services, Mumbai, India.

2010 - Paul E. Gray

photo of Paul Gray

As an educator and expert in semiconductor electronics, Paul Edward Gray’s vision and leadership have advanced engineering education and practice around the globe. His innovative approaches at MIT, Cambridge, Mass., influenced generations of engineering leaders. His experience, knowledge and continued passion for education were evident in his various roles held at MIT, ranging from instructor, to dean, to president. In the 1980s he encouraged curriculum reforms that strengthened humanities, arts and social sciences. He championed for increased opportunities for women and minorities, and he was a strong advocate in providing financial assistance to all students in need.

Dr. Gray was a proponent of expanding undergraduate engineering education beyond the traditional core science subjects to better prepare engineering students for management roles. He strongly supported creation of the MIT Leaders for Manufacturing Programs to produce graduates with both engineering and leadership abilities. He was a champion of MIT’s Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program, which allowed students to join faculty research groups to apply their classroom learning and be exposed to real-world problems.
Dr. Gray was very active in Washington, D.C. as an advocate of engineering universities. He served four years on the White House Science Council and as a member on the Council's Panel on the Health of Universities.He was at the forefront in promoting open intellectual exchange with countries such as Japan, and he used his influence to lobby for increased public awareness of science and technology. An IEEE Life Fellow, Dr. Gray is a Professor of Electrical Engineering Emeritus and President Emeritus at MIT.

2009 - Craig R. Barrett

photo of Craig Barrett

Combining a superb technical background with excellent leadership skills, Craig R. Barrett developed Intel Corporation into a leading innovator of microprocessor technology and impacted the microelectronics industry as a whole. With a career that has spanned from academician to technical contributor to corporate leader, Dr. Barrett rose from technology development manager to chairman of the board at Intel, and when U.S. leadership in integrated circuit technologies was threatened during the late 1980s, it was Dr. Barrett’s vision that restored Intel as a leading innovator of microelectronics, raising industry standards with processes that served as models for other companies to emulate.

He has driven significant improvements to the company's process control, statistical analysis and problem-solving methods, and he has fine-tuned Intel's manufacturing process, improving yields and developing a higher quality materials supply base, fueling enhancements in quality consciousness and introducing a standardization methodology that allowed processes to be transferred from site to site, resulting in improved factory performance.

As an industry and education spokesman, Dr. Barrett has championed issues such as education, competitiveness, international development and corporate responsibility. He has led the development of the Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, which identifies technical challenges facing the industry, and the University Focus Research Program, which funds and coordinates semiconductor research efforts for universities.

Dr. Barrett is the author of over forty technical papers dealing with the influence of microstructure on the properties of materials. An IEEE Life Member, Dr. Barrett served as chairman of the board at Intel Corporation until his retirement in May 2009. 

2008 - Steven B. Sample

photo of Steven Sample

Steven B. Sample, president of the University of Southern California (USC), is recognized for his lifelong work and support of electrical engineering; which includes contributions as a leader in higher education, a practicing engineer, an educator and as an author.

Dr. Sample began his career in electrical engineering in 1966 as an associate professor in the school of engineering at Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. In 1982, he became the president of the State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo, where he also held a faculty appointment in the department of electrical engineering. Under his leadership, he led the SUNY campus to become a member of the prestigious Association of American Universities. In 1991, Dr. Sample was appointed president of USC and became a tenured faculty member in the engineering school, which has become one of the top 10 engineering schools in the U.S.  Dr. Sample led the most successful fundraising campaign in the history of higher education at the time, raising nearly $3 billion for the institution. Dr. Sample’s research in digital electronic controls for appliances resulted in patents that have been licensed to major manufacturers of appliance controls and microwave ovens.

An IEEE Life Member, he is a past recipient of the IEEE Outstanding Paper Award. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is the author of the best-selling book The Contrarian’s Guide to Leadership. He holds bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana. In addition, he has received honorary doctorates from eight institutions.

2007 - Anita K. Jones

photo of Anita Jones

Anita K. Jones, a leader in the field of computer science, has made significant contributions to computer science research and in the Department of Defense (DOD) science and technology programs. Dr. Jones served as the Director of Defense Research and Engineering in the Pentagon for over four years, where she controlled the budget for research and engineering for the DOD, and was recognized for her exemplary service to the country with the Department of Defense Award for Distinguished Public Service. The U.S. Navy (which is authorized to name undersea mountains) named a seamount in the North Pacific Ocean for her.

Dr. Jones? service to the computer science industry is also well known?she has served as founding editor-in-chief of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Transactions on Computer Systems and as an editor of the Communications of the ACM, two of the more widely circulated journals within the field, served on several advisory boards including MIT Lincoln Laboratories Advisory Board, the Defense Science Board and has served on or chaired numerous national academies? committees. Her research has produced seminal results in several areas including operating systems, protection, security and software engineering. Dr. Jones was instrumental in building a ?top-notch? computer science research program at Virginia.

Dr. Jones served as vice chair on the National Science Board where took a leadership position in fostering advancement in long-lived data repositories, increased investment in small and medium research infrastructure and more transparent management of the major research equipment construction processes. Currently, Dr. Jones is the Lawrence A. Quarles Professor of Engineering and Applied Science and University Professor in the department of computer science at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va., where she has taught for 19 years.

An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Jones has a bachelor?s degree in Mathematics from Rice University, Houston, Texas and a master?s in English Literature from the University of Texas at Austin and a doctorate in Computer Science from Carnegie-Mellon University in Pittsburgh, PA.

2006 - Toshiharu Aoki

photo of Toshiharu Aoki

Dr. Toshiharu Aoki has been the undisputed leader in gaining international cooperation for global standardization and commercialization of broadband multi-media networks.

His leadership began in the 1980?s, when he led the development of the world?s first, all-electronic digital switching system, a project that made him keenly aware of the need for international standardization if multimedia services were to be commercially successful.

As director general of NTT Labs in Tokyo, Japan, he proposed and steered the creation of TINA-C, the Telecommunications Information Networking Architecture Consortium in 1992. In so doing, he convinced competing telecommunications carriers and suppliers to share a common architecture. Today, that architecture is widely used as the technical benchmark for international network management and new service development.

Three years later, Dr. Aoki again led an international coalition, this time to harmonize transmission of fiber optics access networks. Known as the Full Service Access Network Group, this collaboration of telecommunications carriers enabled the development of equipment components based on global standards, thus substantially reducing transmission costs. In both cases, he was a staunch proponent of international cooperation, and supported it with significant research and development resources from NTT.

As a bridge builder between research and commercial introduction, he has initiated and promoted international academic conferences among Asian countries in collaboration with the IEEE. These conferences encouraged academic research and fostered new broadband technology industries in Asia.

An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Aoki has received the IEEE Frederik Philips Award and is a past president of The Institute of Electronic, Information and Communication Engineers in Japan.

2005 - Eugene Wong

Dr. Eugene Wong is known for the extraordinary breadth of his accomplishments in scientific research, academia,the business world and government service. As a researcher, Dr.Wong set new directions in the theory of stochastic processes and database technology. Working with Bruce Hajek, he developed the theory that provides the statistical foundation for processing images and other multi-dimensional data.He also invented 'dynamic re-materialization,' a method that focuses on the distribution of data during query processing.

As chairman of the electrical engineering and computer sciences department at the University of California in Berkeley, he led it to become not only Berkeley's largest academic department, but also one of the most globally respected. He also served for two years as vice president of research at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, where he developed successful and innovative programs in technology transfer and commercialization.

Also a businessman, Dr.Wong was a co-founder of INGRES Corporation, a major database software company and technology leader. He subsequently was chief executive officer of SuperNet,Ltd.,a pioneering Hong Kong Internet service provider, and of Versata, Inc., an Oakland, California based publicly traded software company.

In 1990,he was recruited by the U.S. White House to be associate director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy,Executive Office of the President, where he coordinated the effort leading to the Presidential Initiative on High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) and the High Performance Computing Act of 1991.In addition,from 1998 to 2000 he served as assistant director of the National Science Foundation and Head of the Engineering Directorate, where he reshaped NSF programs in engineering.

2004 - Mildred Dresselhaus

Dr. Mildred Dresselhaus' career combines research accomplishments at the highest level with sustained leadership, advocacy and service on behalf of the engineering and science professions.

A voice for national competitiveness and security, she served as director of the Office of Science in the U.S. Department of Energy from 2000 to 2001. One of 12 institute professors at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where she has taught since 1967, Dr. Dresselhaus also directed the MIT Center for Materials Science and Engineering from 1977 to 1983. Her research has been at the forefront of advances in carbon materials science, and her peers call her work on carbon nanotubes among the most exciting in nanoscale development. Since the mid-1970s, Dr. Dresselhaus has campaigned to improve women's access to careers in technology and science. Her 1975 article 'Some Personal Views on Engineering Education for Women' (IEEE Transactions on Education) remains both valuable and relevant.

Serving as a role model, she has mentored, formally and informally, countless young women at MIT and around the world. An IEEE Life Fellow, Dr. Dresselhaus is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Sciences. She chairs the governing board of the American Institute of Physics and has served as treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences and as president of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Her numerous awards include a Fulbright fellowship and the U.S. National Medal of Science.

2003 - Raymond S. Stata

Raymond S. Stata's contributions to the electronics industry encompass technological innovation, forward-looking management, entrepreneurship and education. One of the founders of Analog Devices, Inc. (ADI) in 1965, Mr. Stata served as president of the company from 1971-1991 and as CEO from 1973-1996. He has served as chairman of the Board since 1973.

Responding to industrial shifts, Mr. Stata guided ADI through a number of critical transformations-changing from a producer of modules of discrete components in the 1960s to a market-leading provider of high-performance analog, mixed-signal and digital signal processing integrated circuits.

Mr. Stata has shared his knowledge of business and management practices with other companies worldwide through the Center for Quality Management, which, together with Professors Thomas Lee and Shoji Shiba from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) , he founded in 1989. He has served on the Executive Committee of the Council on Competitiveness since 1987, with the aim of helping rehabilitate and foster the competitiveness of American industry in a changing global economic climate.

His work as co-founder and first president of the Massachusetts High Technology Council has spawned many initiatives, including the "Two Percent Solution" contribution program that encourages corporations to dedicate a portion of their research and development budgets to education.

Mr. Stata is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a Foreign Fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering. He has been chairman of the Semiconductor Industry Association, member of the Board of Overseers of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, and currently serves as a member of the MIT Corporation. He is the co-author with James Botkin and Dan Dimancescu of two books, Global Stakes: The Future of High Technology in America and The Innovators: Rediscovering America's Creative Energy.

2002 - Thomas E. Everhart

From his early research at Cambridge University in England, in the 1950s forward, Dr. Thomas E. Everhart has developed indispensable tools for the electronics industry?scanning electron microscopes and electronbeam microwriters. This type of equipment is used for research on semiconductors, integrated circuits, microfabrication and more. Under his direction from 1958-1978, the University of California at Berkeley saw the construction of the first scanning electron microscope in a U.S. university. At UCB, his work generated a network of students who now include many of the researchers and developers of electron beam equipment used in the semiconductor industry.

His service as dean of the College of Engineering at Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y., as chancellor of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and as president of the California Institute of Technology at Pasadena (Caltech) are among his contributions to knowledge and his service to academia. Currently president emeritus of Caltech, he serves, or has served until this year on the Boards of Directors of General Motors, Reveo, Saint-Gobain, Raytheon, Hughes Electronics and Agilent Technologies. He also has been a member of or chaired numerous committees of U.S. national importance, including ones in the National Academy of Engineering and the Department of Energy. He also served as vice-chairman of the U.S. Council on Competitiveness.

Dr. Everhart is a Fellow of the IEEE, American Association of the Advancement of Science and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a foreign member of The Royal Academy of Engineering (Great Britain). He is the recipient of many honors, including an IEEE Centennial Medal.

2001 - Robert A. Frosch

Robert A. Frosch?s career has included important success in the public, private, and academic arenas. He has skillfully led a wide array of research and development projects, including some with implications for the environment, space travel, defense, and education.

In 1982, Dr. Frosch became Vice President of the General Motors Corporation (GM) in charge of Research Laboratories. There, he championed a five-year program to develop an entirely new approach to engineering electronic and electrical features of vehicles. This research led to the development of Systems Engineering Center, and significant changes in the way GM designs and develops vehicles. Earlier, as Administrator of NASA from 1977 to 1981, Dr. Frosch played a key role in the development of the very successful Space Shuttle Program.

Robert A. Frosch was born on 22 May 1928, in the Bronx, New York. He earned a B.A. from Columbia College in 1947, and a Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia University in 1952. Four years later he was named Director of Hudson Laboratories at Columbia.

In 1963, he was appointed Director for Nuclear Test Detection in the Defense Department?s Advanced Research Projects Agency, where he expanded the seismic research program and two years later became Deputy Director. In 1966, Dr. Frosch was appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research and Development.

In 1973, Dr. Frosch became the first Assistant Executive Director for the UN Environment Programme, and in 1975, he became Associate Director for Applied Oceanography at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Since his retirement from GM in 1993, Dr. Frosch has been a Senior Research Fellow at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.

Dr. Frosch is a Fellow of the IEEE and a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Phi Beta Kappa, and Sigma Xi. He is also a Foreign Member of the Royal Academy of Engineering (UK). His numerous awards include the Navy Distinguished Public Service Award and the NASA Distinguished Service Medal. He has also received honorary Doctorates of Engineering from the University of Miami and Michigan Technological University.