The expertise of Steven A. Boggs has led to greater understanding of the root causes of failure in power cable insulation and gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) for more reliable transmission and distribution networks. He has developed methods that compute the transient electric field and conductivity at nanoscales and introduced quantum mechanics to the conductivity calculations and the impact of defects. His work has enabled equipment engineers to employ higher design stresses in GIS and transmission-class cross-linked polyethylene cable without increasing the risk of failure. Boggs developed the first online partial discharge (PD) detector for GIS, which utilized ultrahigh frequency for PD detection. This allows detection of the most common manufacturing, installation, and aging-related issues without destructive tests. He also has improved the reliability of surge arrestors through modelling deterioration processes.
An IEEE Fellow, Boggs (deceased) was president of Nonlinear Systems, Inc., Ashford, CT, USA.
The advanced modeling tools and innovative equipment developed by Jinliang He is making drastic improvements in protecting high-voltage power transmission lines from the effects of lightning strikes. Using electromagnetic field theory, He developed lightning shielding failure analysis methods for extra- and ultra-high-voltage transmission lines that are more accurate than conventional electrogeometric analysis. Tackling the difficult subject of upward lightning leaders originating from the transmission lines, He’s models more accurately simulate the real process of a lightning strike, enabling optimal design of overhead power lines to reduce lightning shielding failure events. He also pioneered polymeric surge arrestors that are smaller, lighter, and safer to better suppress overvoltage due to lightning strikes and to effectively reduce the cost of constructing ultra-high-voltage systems.
An IEEE Fellow, He is the Chang Jiang Scholars Distinguished Professor of China’s Ministry of Education with the Department of Electrical Engineering at Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
George Dorwart Rockefeller’s prescient work on how to use computers to provide real-time analysis of voltages and currents for fault detection laid the foundation for today’s digital protection, control, and monitoring of the electric power grid. Known as “the father of digital protection,” Rockefeller invented the concept of on-line, real-time protective relaying of electric power systems in 1967 while with Westinghouse Electric Corporation—well before the advent of microprocessors made it a cost-effective reality. His development of the Prodar 70 digital relay, installed in a California transmission substation in 1971 by Westinghouse and Pacific Gas and Electric, transformed protective relaying of power systems and set the standards for modern microprocessor relay products. Rockefeller’s contributions inspired the industry to look at protection and control in a completely new, and smarter, way.
An IEEE Life Fellow, Rockefeller is retired and works as an engineering consultant, New York, NY, USA.
George Anders’ expertise has contributed toward setting the standard for rating electric power cables, which has provided significant economic benefits to the power industry. His computational techniques using analytical and finite element methods enable engineers to accurately rate cable circuits. He also developed optimization techniques for selecting the most economic conductor sizes, providing accurate calculations to avoid costly oversizing of buried cables. The software for steady-state and emergency ratings of underground cables, which he developed, is used throughout the world and is considered the industry standard for power cable rating calculations. Anders’ contributions to early leak detection methods are also helping to reduce the costs of detection, location, clean up, and repair related to cable leaks.
An IEEE Fellow, Anders is a professor in the Department of Microelectronics and Computer Science, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland.
A pioneer in exploring the potential of SF6 (sulfur hexafluoride) as a dielectric insulator, Wolfram Boeck provided the power industry with technology that enables reliable and efficient high-capacity electricity transmission. Prof. Boeck’s research on SF6 began in the 1960s, resulting in the first gas-insulated, hermetically encapsulated high-voltage switchgear. He addressed key aspects of SF6 as an insulting gas, including development of the “volume time law” that describes time lag as a function of stressed gas. Prof. Boeck also investigated insulation coordination and methods for avoiding external effects and for monitoring insulation quality using UHF signals. He championed the implementation of SF6 in practical devices and standards, resulting in space-efficient gas-insulated substations and reliable gas-insulated transmission lines, which have been implemented worldwide as safe methods for supplying power.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Boeck is a Professor Emeritus with the Technische Universität München, and lives in Meersburg, Germany.
Willem Boone’s pioneering diagnostic and condition-assessment methods for power cables have been invaluable to the electric power industry in determining product life and avoiding electrical failure. Among Mr. Boone’s major contributions was his development of testing methods to detect water treeing in both aged and new cables. Water treeing can advance degradation and lead to electrical failure in buried or water-immersed high-voltage cables. Mr. Boone’s methods aide utility companies in determining when to replace existing cables. For testing new cables, he created a high-frequency (500 Hz) accelerated method, which reduced the ageing test duration to 4 months compared to approximately 2 years. Mr. Boone has also improved partial discharge detection tools helpful in estimating remaining cable life, and he has been very active in preparing related international user guides and standards within CIGRE, IEC, and ICC.
An IEEE Senior Member, Willem Boone is a senior consultant with KEMA, now called DNV GL, Oosterbeek, The Netherlands.
One of the world’s leading authorities on power system stability analysis, the innovations of Vijay Vittal have helped protect the power grid from cascading power outages and large-scale blackouts. Dr. Vittal’s contribution to the transient energy function method has provided a real-time process for quickly calculating conditions of electric power systems. His stability analysis methods have improved reliability and security to allow increased transmission capacity. The first real-time dynamic security analysis method was successfully implemented at the grid control center of the Northern States Power Company in Minneapolis, MN, USA, in 1993. Dr. Vittal’s methods have since been adopted by control centers around the world. He has also proposed the concept of rapid islanding of the power grid to prevent power outages from spreading.
An IEEE Fellow and member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, Dr. Vittal is the Ira A. Fulton Chair Professor at Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.
Michel Duval is an internationally renowned leader in the field of dissolved gas analysis (DGA) for condition monitoring of oil-filled power equipment such as high-voltage transformers. Condition monitoring helps prevent service failures and aids power companies in asset management of critical equipment. One of the most reliable techniques for recognizing abnormal behavior in transformers while the equipment is in operation, DGA’s use as a standard method for condition monitoring is largely due to the efforts of Dr. Duval. The “Duval Triangle” method has become an indispensable tool for DGA and is used by hundreds of power utilities, service laboratories, and manufacturers of on-line gas monitors. Dr. Duval also established the typical levels of gas formation observed in various types of electrical equipment and the probability of equipment failure as a function of in-service gas formation. His gas-in-oil standards have been commercialized since 1999 and are used worldwide.
An IEEE Life Fellow, Dr. Duval is currently a senior research scientist with Hydro Quebec Institute of Research, Quebec, Canada.
Carlos Katz’s vital research on moisture prevention in power cables has extended product life by over 25 years and has saved the utility industry substantial money worldwide. As Extruded cables insulated with cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) and ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) age, moisture diffuses into their insulation and, in the presence of electric stress, a degradation phenomenon originates. It was Mr. Katz’s research that helped discover and explain the moisture phenomenon (known as “water trees”), and it was his efforts that led to a solution. Mr. Katz developed a method that involved running dielectric liquids through the inter-strand spacing of the aged cables. The liquids diffuse into the insulation to replace the moisture, inhibiting further development of water trees and allowing continued operation.
An IEEE Life Fellow, Mr. Katz is currently the president of Cable Technology Laboratories, Inc. in New Brunswick, NJ, which provides testing services to manufacturers and utility companies to assure cable system reliability.
An international expert in power system stability, Carson W. Taylor has made pivotal advancements in the area of power system performance and reliability. While with the Bonneville Power Administration, Taylor led many projects that improved system reliability and dynamics in the Western North American power system.
He is perhaps best known for the development and on-line demonstration in 2002–2005 of the Wide-Area voltage and stability Control System (WACS). WACS incorporates real-time sensors distributed throughout the power grid with global-positioning-satellite technology for high-speed automatic control of power-grid conditions to quickly stabilize problems before they can affect the rest of the grid.
Mr. Taylor is a distinguished member of CIGRE, one of the leading worldwide organizations on electric power systems, covering their technical, economic, environmental, organizational, and regulatory aspects. He is an IEEE Life Fellow and a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, and he has authored Power System Voltage Stability, which was the first book written on the subject.
Robert C. Degeneff is known in the power engineering field for his technical contributions of almost four decades to the modeling of transformer coils and windings. Dr. Degeneff’s research has led to the development of industry standards in the computation of transient voltages within transformer windings, allowing for the efficient design of insulation structures, reducing power loss in a transformer. He is currently a professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, NY, and founder and president of Utility Systems Technologies (UST), Inc. of Latham, NY. Today, UST is a leading developer of electronic voltage regulators and sag mitigation equipment used to solve voltage sag problems in both utility and industrial power systems.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Degeneff holds eight patents and has published seven dozen papers and several chapters in books in the electric-power area. In addition, he is a professional engineer in New York and a member of several professional societies including Eta Kappa Nu.
Eric Forsyth’s pioneering work on the design of superconductors has provided vast improvements to power transmission systems including very high power density, benign environmental impact, and the ability to transport power for very long distances.
During 35 years at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, he worked on the design of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and he led the design and creation of Brookhaven’s superconducting power transmission project, which produced a wealth of knowledge on the performance of conductors, dielectric insulation, cryogenic refrigeration at very low temperatures, and system operation under a variety of conditions, including simulated emergencies. He also chaired the Accelerator Development Deployment Department, charged with constructing a booster accelerator for the AGS and constructing magnets for the Superconducting Super Collider in Texas.
An IEEE Life Fellow, he holds an M.S. of Applied Science from the University of Toronto. He received the Dielectrics Prize from the Japanese Institute of Electric Engineers and the award for excellence in Technology Transfer, Federal Lab Consortium, US.
Dr. Anjan Bose, dean of the college of engineering and architecture and endowed distinguished professor in power engineering at Washington State University in Pullman, has pioneered major breakthroughs in power system control technology. His achievements include better computer controls for electric generation and transmission systems and a computer simulator used globally to avoid blackouts.
Dr. Bose developed many of the methods and software systems now used in utility power grid control centers around the world. He is especially known for a portable, real-time computer simulator for training power grid operators, for which he developed the simulation, scenario building and other features that have dramatically improved how transmission grid operators are trained. By working with industrial psychologists to analyze grid operator job tasks, he was able to create programs that allow multiple operators with diverse functions to train simultaneously, thus replicating real-life conditions.
His research in the operation and control of the electric power grid led to breakthroughs in power system control technology now in use, including better computer control of generation and transmission systems to avoid blackouts. Dr. Bose is an expert on how to maintain power grid reliability given the changes resulting from deregulation of the U.S. power industry deregulation. He served on a blue-ribbon study team appointed by the U.S. Secretary of Energy to evaluate power outages in the Eastern and Midwestern regions of the nation. He was the first to demonstrate the object-oriented automatic display generator, which has become the standard for generating and updating substation schematics in the control center.
An IEEE Fellow, he also is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering and a foreign fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering, and he has received the IEEE Outstanding Power Engineer Educator Award from the IEEE Power Engineering Society and the IEEE Third Millennium Medal. Dr. Bose is a member of the board of directors of the Washington Technology Center in Seattle and a former member of the executive board of the Power Systems Computation Conference on Electric Power Control Centers.
Dr. Bose holds a bachelor’s degree in technology from the Indian Institute of Technology at Kharagpur, a master’s degree from the University of California at Berkeley and a doctorate from Iowa State University in Ames, both in Electrical Engineering.
Mr. James Burke, executive consultant at Synergetic Design Inc., in Cary, NC, has had a profound impact on nearly every aspect of modern electrical power distribution. His vital reference, Power Distribution Engineering: Fundamentals & Applications, has helped generations of engineers improve how distribution systems are designed, protected, and operated. Mr. Burke has held prominent positions at some of the world's largest power technology companies. He managed the world's first 50 kilovolt electrified rail system and was the first to use metal oxide riser pole arresters. Mr. Burke shared his firsthand experience in teaching the industry how to properly apply arresters to protect systems and equipment. He wrote numerous papers on the overvoltage and overcurrent protection of distribution systems. He is co-inventor of the first microprocessor-based fault recorder and co-developer of the five-wire distribution system.
A Fellow of IEEE, Mr. Burke is the recipient of the IEEE Power Engineering Society's Award for Excellence in Power Distribution Engineering.
Dr. Andrew J. Eriksson has made fundamental contributions to the calculation of transmission line lightning reliability. His participation on IEEE, IEC, and International Council on Large Electric Systems (CIGRE) standards working groups for lightning reliability resulted in many indispensable works, such as IEEE Standard 1243-1997: IEEE Design Guide for Improving the Lightning Performance of Transmission Lines. Dr. Eriksson’s research helped clarify the parameters and striking processes of the ground flash as an engineering event, and he did seminal work on equations and experimental data now used worldwide by the electric power industry.
From 1969 to 1985, Dr. Eriksson worked at South Africa’s National Electrical Engineering Laboratories (NEERI), becoming senior chief research officer and finally assistant director. He also worked as an honorary professor at the University of Witwatersrand and at Eriksson & Pretorius Inc., both in South Africa, in the early 1980s. In 1986, Dr. Eriksson moved to Zurich, Switzerland, to join ABB, where he spent four years as president for worldwide operations in medium-voltage switchgear before being appointed executive vice president and member of the ABB Group executive committee in 2001. He retired from ABB in 2002 and is now an independent director and member of the board of The Performance Group, Oslo, Norway.
Dr. Eriksson’s most notable efforts include his 1978 research on lightning in relation to tall structures and his contributions to equations correlating ground flash density with the number of thunderstorm days and estimating the number of flashes to transmission lines. In the late 1980s he addressed the shielding of transmission lines by overhead ground wires and advanced the lightning insulation coordination of substations, including a groundbreaking 765-V gas-insulated station.
He was born on 25 April 1946 in Arusha, Tanzania. Raised in South Africa, he studied electrical engineering at the University of Natal, Durban, and received an M.S. in 1969 and a doctorate in 1979.
Dr. Eriksson is a Fellow of the IEEE, the Institution of Electrical Engineers, and the South African Institute of Electrical Engineers. A member of the Institute of Directors and an honorary member of CIGRE, he served as chairman of the CIGRE study committee on power system insulation coordination. He has published more than 40 papers and holds a patent as the co-inventor of a commercial lightning warning system.
Sarma P. Maruvada’s work in the analysis and measurement of audible noise and radio interference on transmission line conductors has significantly furthered the study of electromagnetic fields and corona phenomena associated with high voltage AC/DC power lines.
During his nearly 30-year tenure at the Hydro Quebec Institute of Research (IREQ), Dr. Maruvada’s efforts in the sensitive areas of human and environmental impact have been particularly far-reaching. Through a combination of innovative research, large-scale measurement programs, and shrewd analysis, he has increased understanding of electric and magnetic fields, ion densities, space charges, onset voltages, power losses, and many other factors that affect the design and development of transmission lines.
Dr. Maruvada’s work has determined acceptable levels of audible noise, based on psychoacoustic studies, the subjective human response to radio interference on AM radio reception and acceptable signal-to-noise ratios. His research has also transformed the field of electromagnetic exposure related to high-voltage alternating current (HVAC) transmission lines. The Canadian Standards Association has used his research to develop standards on radio interference from high-voltage AC lines.
Throughout Dr. Maruvada’s career, he has worked to promote and transfer his knowledge through committees and publications. His book, CoronaPerformance of High-Voltage Transmission Lines, serves as a defining guide for professionals in the field.
Dr. Maruvada was born on 1 January 1938 in Rajahmundry, India. He received his bachelor’s degree with honors in Electrical Engineering from Andhra University in 1958 and a master’s degree with distinction in Engineering from the Indian Institute of Science in 1959. He also earned a master’s degree in 1966 and doctorate in 1968 from the University of Toronto, both in Electrical Engineering. Currently, he is a consultant.
Dr. Maruvada is a Fellow of IEEE and an honorary member of CIGRE. He was a member of the Executive Committee of the IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition and chairman of CIGRE Study Committee 36 on Power System Electromagnetic Compatibility. His many awards and honors include the Platinum Jubilee Alumni Distinguished Achievement Award of the Indian Institute of Science.
Widely recognized as a leading expert of HVdc transmission, Dr. John J. Vithayathil has also made key contributions to HVac transmission, including the invention of the Rapid Adjustment of Network Impedance (RANI) scheme.
Dr. Vithayathil has made significant contributions to the advancement of HVdc system technologies. In two decades of technical leadership at the Bonneville Power Administration in Portland, Oregon, he oversaw the technical aspects of three stages of expansion of the Pacific HVdc Intertie. It grew from a system rated +400KV, 1440MW to one rated +500KV, 3100MW.
His work has also included innovative simulation techniques, harmonics, transient over-voltages on bipolar overhead lines, metallic return transfer breakers, HVdc breakers, series capacitor compensated converters, and transformerless dc converters. He has been involved in numerous other HVdc projects around the world as a consultant.
What is today known as Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) is one of the RANI schemes that Dr. Vithayathil worked on in the mid-1980s. A powerful tool for improving stability of ac transmission systems, TCSC is a cost-effective means of increasing transmission capacity. Currently, there are five TCSC installations in operation, with many more planned.
Dr. Vithayathil was born on 17 February 1937 in Kerala, India. He earned a B.Sc. in Engineering from the Trivandrum Engineering College at the University of Kerala, and an M.Sc. and a Ph.D. in Engineering from the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, India.
Dr. Vithayathil was a lecturer at the Indian Institute of Science before joining Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in Portland, OR, in 1967. In his 20 years at BPA, Dr. Vithayathil held positions of Electronic Analog Specialist, Power System Analyst, Technical Advisor for HVdc, and Chief Electrical Networks Engineer. He left BPA in 1988 to work as an independent engineering consultant.
Dr. Vithayathil is a Fellow of the IEEE and a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He has written numerous articles related to his field and holds a number of patents, including that for TSCS.