The vision and leadership of Stephen L. Casner and Eve M. Schooler in developing multimedia standards and protocols for the Internet have driven the success of IP-based telephony, video streaming, and multimedia conferencing we take for granted today. Casner contributed to the first specification and implementation of packet voice on the Internet (the Network Voice Protocol). He later led the Audio/Video Transport (AVT) Working Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and co-authored the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). Schooler played a key role in the development and implementation of early multimedia signaling protocols. She also co-founded the IETF’s Multiparty Multimedia Session Control (MMUSIC) Working Group. Under her leadership, this group developed some of the most influential multimedia signaling standards, including the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), of which she is a co-author; the Session Description Protocol (SDP); and the Real-Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP). RTP and SIP provide the foundation for media transport and signaling in many real-time multimedia applications and services. Casner and Schooler's work on early prototype systems was instrumental in demonstrating the feasibility of packet audio and video, multicast teleconferencing and radio, IPTV, and even distributed music performance across the Internet.
Casner is a Fellow (retired) of Packet Design, Santa Clara, CA, USA.
An IEEE Senior Member, Schooler is a Principal Engineer and Director of Emerging IoT Networks with Intel, Santa Clara, CA, USA.
Jennifer Rexford’s insights and engineering innovations have made the Internet more stable, delivering the foundations that enable sound and highly reliable Internet performance. Rexford created methods to measure traffic, topology, and routing from multiple locations to obtain a network-wide view of large Internet backbone networks, which makes it possible to manage these networks effectively. The engineering of practically every wide-area network, from Internet service providers to Cloud providers, builds on Rexford’s pioneering work on the design and operation of large-scale networks. Her work on the Routing Control Platform, which proposed the explicit separation of control and data, helped shape today's Software Defined Networking (SDN) initiative, which has revolutionized networking by enabling greater innovation.
An IEEE Fellow, Rexford is the Gordon Y.S. Wu Professor of Engineering and Chair of Computer Science at Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA.
Ramesh Govindan’s pioneering work on defining Internet topology, discovering how the many hosts, routers, and autonomous systems are connected, has been integral to the continued growth of the Internet. His Mercator mapping tool was one of the first network mappers and provided extensive views of the Internet’s backbone. He was among the first to study the Border Gateway Protocol, identifying oscillation issues affecting network stability. Govindan is also one of the founders of the sensornet movement, important to developing the Internet of Things in which everyday objects are imbedded with sensors that enable constant monitoring and interaction. Notable here is his work on directed diffusion and development of the Tenet program for wireless sensing, which set the direction for continued research.
An IEEE Fellow, Govindan is the Northrop Grumman Chair in Engineering and a professor at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Deborah Estrin’s innovative ideas and leadership have combined to realize powerful new ways of adapting the Internet to applications of great importance to modern society. Estrin helped design the replacement of the Internet’s original global routing protocol and also championed multicast protocols, which support aggregate communication among a collection of hosts compared to traditional point-to-point communication. She was the founding director of the National Science Foundation’s Center for Embedded Networked Sensing (CENS), which pioneered the development of mobile and wireless systems to collect and analyze real-time data about the physical world and the people who occupy it. She then applied this participatory sensing technology to improving health outcomes as the undisputed thought leader in mobile health (mHealth) applications.
An IEEE Fellow, Estrin is a professor of Computer Science at Cornell Tech, New York, NY, USA.
The multimedia-capable Internet now taken for granted was made possible by Henning Schulzrinne’s fundamental contributions to the development of network protocols, applications, and algorithms for the effective transport of audio and video signals. He helped migrate the Internet from a medium containing primarily text and images to one featuring both real-time and on-demand audio/video. Key to the success of the Internet was Schulzrinne’s Real-Time Transport Protocol, which became an Internet full standard in 2004. He also developed the Real-Time Streaming Protocol to control delivery of audio and video streams, which is supported by major consumer streaming architectures. And his Session Information Protocol became the standard for Internet telephony and conducting real-time interactive multimedia sessions.
An IEEE and ACM Fellow, Schulzrinne is a professor with the Department of Computer Science at Columbia University, New York, NY, USA and serves as a Technology Advisor to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in Washington, DC, USA.
The pioneering and continued contributions of Kimberly Claffy and Vern Paxson have provided a deeper understanding of how the Internet works, the traffic it carries, and how to combat threats. Prof. Paxson was among the first to empirically study the modern Internet and the first to identify the substantial challenges involved in measuring and simulating the Internet. He introduced the usefulness of statistical techniques for gathering data and sparked resurgence in measurement research. Prof. Paxson’s “Bro” network monitoring system established him as widely recognized expert on network-based attacks. Dr. Claffy provided some of the first descriptions of “traffic flows,” which are now mainstream and fundamental to network monitoring, modeling, and management. In 1997 she founded a research institute, now called the Center for Applied Internet Data Analysis (CAIDA) at the University of California, San Diego, to provide and enable a more scientific approach to Internet research. Through CAIDA, Dr. Claffy has developed and improved network measurement, analysis, and visualization tools and methods and created a publicly accessible collection of network data for use by researchers worldwide.
Dr. Claffy is the director of CAIDA and an adjunct professor with the University of California, San Diego, CA, USA. An IEEE Senior member, Dr. Paxson is a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA, and holds a joint appointment with the International Computer Science Institute.
Jon Crowcroft has been one of the most influential forces on the growth of the Internet. With early contributions to transport protocols (TCPs) for reliably sending data from one network device to another and TCP congestion-avoidance techniques, Dr. Crowcroft is best known for his work during the late 1980s on Internet protocol (IP) multicast. IP multicast enables sending data to multiple interested receivers with a single transmission, and his ideas have become the centerpiece for modern multicast routing. He has also been a champion of opportunistic networks, which provide a more flexible means of connectivity for remote/rural areas, where information is transferred using a combination of remote and fixed networking nodes compared to traditional fixed network infrastructures.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Crowcroft is the Marconi Professor of Communications Systems at the University of Cambridge, U.K.
Adjunct Professor, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA.
“For significant leadership and sustained contributions in the research, development, standardization, and deployment of quality time synchronization capabilities for the Internet.”
Mark Handley’s contributions to Internet engineering have paved the way for real-time multimedia, Internet telephony, and multicast TV. He co-authored today’s standard protocols for multimedia signaling, including the Session Initiation Protocol (for IP telephony and most 3G cellular networks). His contributions helped overcome the limitations of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) congestion control. He collaborated on TCP-Friendly Rate Control for handling Internet streaming and telephony and on XCP explicit congestion control, a fundamentally new approach to congestion control. In 2001, Dr. Handley and his colleagues devised the first Distributed Hash Table (DHT) algorithm; today DHTs are widely used for indexing data in very large distributed systems. Dr. Handley founded the XORP project in 2000 to provide a complete open-source router implementation allowing researchers to experiment with new protocols on real networks. He has also created many open standards as part of the Internet Engineering Task Force.
Dr. Handley is currently professor of networked systems at University College London.
Jun Murai is considered the “Father of Japanese Internet” in establishing the Internet in his native country. In 1984, Dr. Murai deployed the Japanese University Network (JUNET), a computer network connecting Japanese universities that served as the cornerstone of Japan’s Internet. In 1988, Dr. Murai evolved JUNET into the Widely Integrated Distributed Environment (WIDE) Project. The WIDE project started the first transfer control protocol/Internet protocol (IP) network in the Asia-Pacific region and became the backbone of Japan’s Internet. The WIDE project also initiated standard Japanese character coding for the Internet, utilized by Japanese Internet users every day, and IPv6 (the next IP designed to alleviate eventual Internet address exhaustion). Dr. Murai was instrumental in launching Japan’s first Internet service provider and first Internet exchange point. He also has contributed to the internationalization of the Internet e-mail system.
An IEEE Associate Member, Dr. Murai is currently the dean of the Faculty of Environment and Information Studies at Keio University, Kanagawa, Japan.
As designer of the multicast extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) and architect of the latest version of IP, IPv6, Stephen Deering's contributions have been crucial to the evolution of the Internet. The multicast feature of IP has enabled robust, automatic configuration of Internet devices, automatic discovery of network resources, and efficient multidestination delivery of audio, video, and other time-sensitive data. Dr. Deering's design for IP multicast was adopted by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as a Standard and is a component of all IP implementations today. As a solution to the exhaustion of IP addresses caused by the ongoing growth of the Internet, Dr. Deering designed a “next generation” IP. In addition to providing a much larger address space, the new design incorporated a simpler header structure for higher performance and more compact implementation. It was adopted as IPv6 by the IETF and is now undergoing worldwide deployment.
Dr. Deering is currently retired and resides in Vancouver, B.C., Canada.
Lixia Zhang has had a major influence on Internet vendors, network operators and researchers, and standards developers. She was instrumental in the development of the Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP), which is implemented by almost every major router vendor today for Internet resource management and traffic control applications.
Dr. Zhang coined the term middlebox to describe a new class of Internet devices that were not part of the original Internet architecture. These devices include the Web proxies, firewalls and network address translators that operate between different servers and computers using the Internet. The term is now part of standard Internet terminology. She has been active in improving security for critical Internet infrastructure services, on international advisory boards and has worked to establish international collaborations between U.S. and Asian countries on Internet research and operations.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Zhang is currently a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, where she directs the Internet Research Lab that she founded.
The ground-breaking work of computer scientists Michael Brescia, Robert Hinden, and Virginia Travers in Internet router technology, led to the creation of today’s Internet, as well as the design and development of Internet gateway protocols and packet forwarding and monitoring software. Messrs. Brescia, Hinden, and Ms. Travers are considered to be central figures in early router implementations and key contributors to the evolution of the Internet.
Mr. Brescia joined technology consultancy Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN) in 1978 to support its work for the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. He helped develop and deploy Internet gateways, now called routers, in Europe and the U.S., and worked on improving routing for an expanding Internet. He currently works for Docutemp, Inc. in Bedford, Mass. Mr. Brescia is an IEEE Member. He holds a bachelor’s in electrical engineering and computer science from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
Mr. Hinden led teams that developed the first operational Internet router, one of the first transmission control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP) implementations, and the first multiprocessor router implementation. He currently works for Nokia Corporation in Mountain View, Calif. and is a Nokia Fellow, the highest level of recognition given by Nokia for outstanding research and development. He earned a bachelor’s in electrical engineering and a master in computer science from Union College, Schenectady, N.Y.
Ms. Travers joined BBN in 1975, where she specialized in the design and implementation of software for the first Internet routers. She was responsible for the installation of routers in London, Oslo and Palo Alto, Calif. that connected the ARPANET with satellite and packet radio networks to form the early Internet. The author of numerous papers on routers, Ms. Travers was acknowledged by Stanford University, Calif. for her early contributions to the Internet, and she had her name included in its “Birth of the Internet” plaque. Ms. Travers is an IEEE Member. She holds a bachelor’s in computer engineering from Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.
Dr. Scott J. Shenker has been a primary force in Internet research over the past decade. Professor in the department of electrical engineering and computer science at the University of California, and vice president and head of networking at the International Computer Science Institute (ICSI), both in Berkeley, he helped found ICSI's Center for Internet Research.
His first work on resource sharing showed that fair queuing routers would increase the stability and robustness of the Internet. This and his later work on congestion control led to a deeper understanding of network traffic dynamics.
He was also active in the community of researchers that defined extensions of the Internet architecture to support real-time services. This involved work on packet-scheduling, measurement-based admission control, and reservation protocols.
Shenker was among the first to use game theory to analyze resource sharing on the Internet, investigating how the Internet could reach a socially optimal outcome even when individual users adjusted their transmission rates in a selfish manner. He also has worked on pricing in computer networks, looking at both the architectural and economic issues involved.
For the past 15 years, Dr. Sally Floyd, senior scientist at the International Computer Science Institute's Center for Internet Research in Berkeley, California, has played an invaluable role in the Internet community. She has contributed to the study and development of active queue management,which allows the transport mechanisms of the Internet to operate smoothly and gracefully handle a phenomenal growth in traffic. The heart of her work has involved identifying practical ways to control and stabilize Internet congestion, a difficult undertaking given the network's vast and ever-increasing scale. Her early activities at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California highlighted some of the surprising dynamics that arise when applying control mechanisms to the distributed elements of a network.
She showed that periodic router communication can lead to inadvertent, large-scale message synchronization. Her elegant solution of adding random jitter to message timers to avoid synchronization is now a standard component of timer-based protocols.
In 1971, Raymond Tomlinson was a developer of the TENEX time-sharing system, popular among computer science departments attached to the fledgling ARPANET, when he pioneered the network messaging system known today as email. Many aspects of his first email persist today-most notably his choice of the "@" symbol to separate user and computer names. He also made early contributions to protocols that are the basis for Internet communication-the three-way-handshake of the TCP protocol has its roots in his 'Selecting Sequence Numbers' paper. A Senior Member of the IEEE, Mr. Tomlinson has received many awards including induction into the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Alumni Hall of Fame. He is principle engineer at Bolt, Beranek and Newman in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he has been employed since 1967.
David H. Crocker has been a vital contributor to email standards development since the early 1970s. The author of more than 45 Requests for Comments (RFC), his work includes RFC 733-the first standard for Internet email-and its revision, RFC 822, which remains the core
reference for Internet mail formatting. He also has played a major role in the development of standards for MIME file attachments, Internet facsimile and Internet EDI, as well as contributing to work on network management, domain name service, and transport protocol service
optimizations. Active in a number of influential standards groups, Mr. Crocker also was an architect of mail systems including OSI's X.400 and MCI Mail. Since 1991, he has been a principal at Brandenburg Internet Working.
A Senior Member of the IEEE, Mr. Crocker also is a member of the Association of Computing Machinery, the Internet Society and the Independent Computer Consultants Association.
Paul Mockapetris was born on 18 November, 1948 in Boston Massachusetts. He received BS degrees in Physics and Electrical Engineering from MIT in 1971, and a PhD in Information and Computer Science from the University of California, Irvine in 1982.
Paul's earliest professional work was while he was an MIT student: an early multiprocessor operating system for the Architecture Machine Group; virtual machine operating systems for IBM; and simulation work at Draper Labs.
At UC Irvine for his PhD, Paul worked on the Distributed Computer System where he built one of the earliest ring LAN hardware systems and matching network operating system.
At USC's Information Science Institute, Paul started as a research assistant and eventually headed the Communications division. During this time Paul's research included work on many of the fundamental internet protocols, including development of the first SMTP server, and later the invention of the Domain Name System, and deployment of early root servers and DNS operations. The DNS is an essential part of all web and email addresses and essentially every application on the internet.
Paul has been active in internet community service, spending 3 years as program manager for networking at ARPA, and 2 years as IETF chair, as well as numerous other roles..
In 1995, Paul left academia, and took leadership roles at startups including cable internet at @Home, email at Software.com/Openwave, integrated SONET and IP products at Fiberlane/Cerent/Siara.
At present, he is Chairman and Chief Scientist at Nominum, where he has returned to his interest in DNS, advancing naming and directory systems for the internet. He also serves and advisor and board member for various other startups. Paul continues to believe that the internet's future is ahead of it.
Paul is a member of the ACM and IEEE.
In the formative days of the ARPANET, Dr. Stephen D. Crocker developed the key technologies, processes and organizations that continue to support the Internet today. At the University of California, Los Angeles, the first node on the ARPANET, he organized the Network Working Group across the network’s many sites. He also led the suite of protocols that ran in ARPANET host computers, including the first host-host protocol, the Network Control Protocol. NCP was used in the first 12 years of the Internet’s history and was the basis of subsequent host protocols, most notably, the Transmission Control Protocol. In 1969, Dr. Crocker initiated the “Requests for Comments” series of documents that continues to be the primary publication for Internet standards. More recently, he served as the Internet Engineering TaskForce’s first security director.
He holds several patents, especially in relation to CyberCash, a pioneering Internet payment system, which he helped found