Alan Finkel’s precision scientific instruments for electrophysiology, fluorescence imaging, and gene expression have provided measurement tools integral to advanced research and the discovery of new medicines. In 1983, Finkel founded Axon Instruments to commercially produce his Axoclamp single-electrode voltage clamp, which mimicked the functionality of two electrodes. This allowed the voltage clamp technique to be applied even when the cell could not be visualized. He then developed the Axopatch patch clamp to measure the current flowing through ion channels in a wider range of disease and cell types than previously possible. He was also instrumental in designing laser-scanner DNA microarrays; fully automated fluorescence microscope systems; and the Population Patch Clamp, which can record from dozens of cultured cells simultaneously for more efficient drug discovery.
An IEEE Fellow, Finkel is Australia’s Chief Scientist, Canberra, Australia.
Keeping time, or more precisely, keeping accurate time, has been the focus of David W. Allan’s career. He developed a device to automatically remove systematic timing errors from quartz-crystal oscillators used for generating the United States’ official time. He also created a dual-mixer time-difference measurement system with sub-pico-second precision for comparing atomic clocks. His GPS common-view timing receiver has been used to transfer time from timing centers around the world to the International Bureau of Weights and Measures for generating coordinated universal time (UTC) as the world’s official time. His “smart-clock” method for enhancing GPS civil signals has been instrumental in synchronizing cell phone towers. The Allan Variance, Modified Allan Variance, and the Time Variance, which he developed, have become international standards for designing and constructing time and frequency equipment.
An IEEE Life Senior Member, Allan is president of Allan's TIME, Fountain Green, UT, USA.
The innovations developed by Jerome Blair concerning analog and digital converters and waveform recorders have improved efficiency of equipment and benefited national security efforts. His sine wave histogram tests provided a new way to thoroughly test analog-to-digital converters for integral and differential nonlinearity and missing codes using significantly less data than previous testing methods to achieve equal or better accuracy. His improvements enabled much shorter test times and relaxed the requirements on test equipment. Blair patented an algorithm to quantify gamma-ray radial energy deposition in conventional semiconductor detectors, which has aided the detection of contraband nuclear materials. His work has enabled size and weight reduction of portable detection systems, and it enabled increased sensitivity of fixed stations monitoring traffic by eliminating the background radiation coming from directions other than a particular vehicle.
An IEEE Fellow, Blair is a chief scientist with Keystone International, Inc., Albuquerque, NM, USA.
Considered the premier researcher in developing and applying superconducting quantum voltage standards, Samuel P. Benz has provided industries around the world with the ability to perform precision measurements. Benz advanced the capabilities of programmable Josephson Voltage Standard (PJVS) systems that provide improved voltage stability and noise immunity compared to conventional JVS technology. Accuracy is achieved because these voltage standards are based on superconducting Josephson junctions incorporating quantum mechanics, which ensures that the voltage does not drift with time or from environmental conditions. He also helped develop the Quantum Watt, which uses a PJVS for best ever power calibration critical to the electric power industry. The NIST alternating current (ac) JVS produces quantum-accurate ac waveforms and also significantly reduces uncertainties.
An IEEE Fellow and American Physical Society Fellow, Benz is also a NIST Fellow and leads the Superconductive Electronics Group at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO, USA.
Jean-Charles Bolomey’s groundbreaking work on rapid near-field techniques has helped revolutionize the domain of electromagnetic field measurement. Using the modulated scattering technique, during the 1980s Prof. Bolomey demonstrated that simultaneously fast and accurate near-field measurements were possible using probe arrays. This greatly reduced the measurement time compared to the conventional mechanical scan of probes and is now used worldwide in characterizing intentional or nonintentional radiating systems. He also applied the benefits of probe arrays to microwave-based imagery for industrial and medical applications. A pioneer in applying microwave techniques for tomographic imaging, Prof. Bolomey developed a camera with more than 1,000 sensors to provide some of the first-ever images of isolated and perfused organs.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Bolomey is an Emeritus Professor, Paris Sud University, Paris, France.
Thomas E. Linnenbrink’s development of high-speed devices for data acquisition/conversion and passion for crafting industry standards have greatly impacted the signal processing field. Linnenbrink created high-speed charge-couple device (CCD) technology that set the state-of-the-art for data acquisition and signal processing electronics during the 1970s, when his analog and digital converters realized significant power savings over other converters. He has also contributed to the IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society’s Waveform Generation, Measurement, and Analysis Committee (TC-10) since its inception in 1977. Serving as TC-10’s chair from 1997 through October 2013, Mr. Linnenbrink has expanded its scope from two standards to six by establishing terminology and test standards for digital waveform recorders, dataconverters, circuit probes, pulse measurements, and jitter.
An IEEE Fellow, Linnenbrink is the Principal of Teqnovations, LLC, Colorado Springs, CO, USA, which he founded in 2013.
The insight provided by Dylan Forrest Williams into microwave measurements defined the most accurate measurement approaches for the low-cost testing of chips for portable wireless devices. Working with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Dr. Williams pioneered the development of methods for determining the characteristic impedance of printed transmission lines and accurate on-wafer scattering-parameter calibrations. On-wafer measurements allow direct testing of integrated circuits (ICs) in the lab before being packaged. His work has facilitated development of the monolithic-microwave and radio-frequency IC technology behind low-cost wireless components. Dr. Williams’ work also led to the development of mismatch-corrected temporal waveform standards at NIST. These calibrations have been used to establish traceability for high-speed oscilloscopes and large-signal network analyzers.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Williams is an electrical engineer with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO, USA.
Rik Pintelon has played a pioneering role in introducing system identification to the instrumentation and measurement field as a modern approach to solving measurement problems. System identification involves using statistical methods to build mathematical models of dynamical systems using measured data. Dr. Pintelon’s innovative methods have found important use in a diverse range of areas, including measurement and modeling of metal corrosion and deposition, electric machines, inner-ear dynamics, and analysis of civil engineering structures. Dr. Pintelon also developed a frequency domain approach to system identification and pushed for its adoption within the control systems community. In 1991, he and his colleagues were successful in developing the Frequency Domain System Identification (FDIDENT) Toolbox for the popular MATLAB program, which exposed his work to a large audience. Dr. Pintelon also published a highly cited book on system identification in 2001 (System Identification: A Frequency Domain Approach, IEEE Press), with a second edition that will appear in spring 2012.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Pintelon is currently a professor with the Electrical Measurement Department at Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
Reza Zoughi’s efforts during the past two decades in expanding the utility of microwave and millimeter wave inspection techniques has brought significant recognition to the field of Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT&E). Dr. Zoughi’s research team has developed millimeter wave imaging systems and methods for inspecting the spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) of the space shuttle’s external fuel tank, in addition to a real-time, high-resolution, and portable microwave camera that is expected to find widespread utility. He has played a leading role in developing near-field microwave and millimeter wave techniques and developed near-field measurement systems using open-ended waveguide and other more sophisticated probes for evaluating a host of defects in thin and thick and layered composite structures.
An IEEE Fellow and a Fellow of the American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT), Dr. Zoughi is currently the Schlumberger Distinguished Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Missouri University of Science and Technology (Missouri S&T), Rolla.
Bryan Kibble has reshaped the SI system through his determinations and definitions of the ampere, volt, ohm, and kilogram, and his principles have become the established methods for generations of metrologists who have followed him. Dr. Kibble measured the gyromagnetic ratio of the proton, which improved the realization of the SI definition of the ampere. This work was significant in uncovering a substantial error in the traditional realization of the ampere with current balances. Subsequently, his best-known work involved the development of what would become known as the “watt balance” and resulted in worldwide acceptance of the Josephson and von Klitzing constants to represent the conventional values of the volt and ohm. Prior to this, major industrialized nations had different representations for these units, presenting a trade barrier to the sale of electrical measuring instruments. Watt balances are now playing a role in redefining the kilogram.
Dr. Kibble is currently an independent consultant residing in Hampton, UK.
Robert G. Fulks developed the first fully automatic bridge for measuring capacitance, an important parameter of electronic components, and the first commercial test system for printed circuit board assemblies containing complex digital logic circuits. His career accomplishments are of lasting significance to the field of electronic test measurements; improving the efficiency and significantly reducing the cost of system and component manufacturing. His systems have been used by major computer companies as well as the U.S. Navy to test and repair circuit boards at field repair sites, on ships and in submarines. Mr. Fulks is former chairman of the IEEE committee that developed the HPIB (IEEE-488) instrumentation interface standard and a former chairman of the Boston section of the IEEE group on instrumentation and measurement that later became an IEEE society. He also is past chairman of the Advanced Automatic Test Equipment Concepts committee for the U.S. Navy. He holds 10 patents and has published numerous papers in the area of electronic measurement.
A world leader in developing methods to improve the accuracy of measurements that help confirm design goals and improve manufacturing yield, test time and cost, Douglas Rytting has been involved with virtually all microwave network analyzers introduced Hewlett Packard and Agilent Technologies since he joined HP in 1966. He created network analyzers that test the design of components and devices used in high-frequency electronics including communications, satellite, radar, and other systems to ensure they meet their design objectives.
His earliest designs were in the first network analyzers introduced by HP in the 1960s. He managed the development of automatic network analyzers, RF network analyzers, and microwave network analyzers, and then helped launch HP's Microwave CAE Design Software. Mr. Rytting introduced new concepts and algorithms that form the basis for many modern microwave network analyzer calibrations.
Mr. Rytting is an IEEE Member and a long time participant in the Automatic RF Techniques Group, which is affiliated with the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society.
A full professor of electrical and electronic measurements at the Politecnico di Milano in Milan, Italy, Alessandro M. Ferrero has pioneered methods for material and component characterization and power and energy metering. His work has helped improve power quality, especially for identifying sources that produce distortion and compensating for unnecessary current and power components.
In Europe, Ferrero has led in the use of virtual instruments. The measurement and instrumentation technologies he developed have been used to solve complex measurement problems in electric power systems under nonsinusoidal conditions by factoring in virtual instruments, digital signal processing and distributed measurement systems.
His contributions have been recognized worldwide as fundamental milestones in measurement science and practice. These include his interpretation of power definition based on Poynting-Park vector and hyper-complex algebra, as well as his landmark paper, Definitions of Electrical Quantities Commonly Used in Nonsinusoidal Conditions. His work allowed him to define new indicators for evaluating supply and loading qualities under nonsinusoidal conditions. At the same time, his mathematical approach, which is based on hyper-complex algebra, has provided an easier to use and more powerful framework for modeling such conditions.
Ferrero founded and chaired the first six International Workshops on Power Definitions and Measurements. Sponsored by the North Italy Chapter of the IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society, these workshops brought together the world's top measurement and instrumentation researchers to exchange ideas and explore theoretical and practical applications in the field.
An IEEE Fellow, he is the associate editor of the IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement. He has published more than 130 papers in journals on instrumentation and measurement.
He holds a master's degree in electrical engineering from the Politecnico di Milano.
Dr. Clark A. Hamilton, president and CEO of VMetrix, LLC in Boulder, Colorado, is the driving force behind the widespread adoption and use of the Josephson junction array voltage standard. His work has revolutionized the field of voltage calibration by bringing faster and more accurate voltage standard systems into the labs of end users. Through Dr. Hamilton's work, the standard became a robust superconductor integrated circuit containing about 20,000 Josephson junctions and remains the most complex superconducting circuit in practical use today. More recently, Dr. Hamilton has pursued a radically different ac Josephson voltage standard that is driven by a string of pulses, rather than by the precision frequency used for dc standards.
A Fellow of the IEEE and NIST, Dr. Hamilton's numerous honors include the IEEE-USA Electrotechnology Transfer Award, two U.S. Department of Commerce Gold Medals and the National Conference of Standards Laboratories International William A. Wildhack Award.