2020 - Chenming Hu

Chenming Hu

Chenming Hu’s pioneering achievements regarding transistor models and novel transistor structures have enabled the continued scaling of semiconductor devices that enable production of the smaller yet more-powerful and cost-effective computers and electronic devices proliferating society today. In the mid-1990s it became clear that two-dimensional, planar metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) could not deliver continued performance improvements as dimensions were scaled down due to current leakage in short channel length transistors. This slowed channel length scaling and threatened to end the continuation of Moore’s Law. Moore’s Law is the concept that the number of transistors in compact integrated circuits doubles approximately every two years, enabling the personal electronics we continue to take for granted. To overcome this anticipated roadblock in scaling, Hu led the development of a revolutionary three-dimensional transistor structure known as the fin field-effect transistor (FinFET), named so because its thin vertical fin shape resembles a shark’s dorsal fin. By reducing the thickness of the fin, etched out of the surface of a silicon wafer, the transistor channel length can continue to be scaled proportionally. Intel began using the FinFET for mass production of computer processors in 2011 and called it “the most radical shift in semiconductor technology in 50 years.” Hu’s FinFET innovation enabled the 22-, 16-, 14-, 10-, 7- and 5-nm technology nodes, which were unthinkable not long ago. Today practically all high-end computers, smart phones, and communications devices use FinFET technology, and it may add decades to furthering the state of the art in electronics evolution. Also important to the continued advancement of semiconductor technology has been Hu’s contributions to device modeling. In 1996, Hu’s breakthrough BSIM (Berkeley Simulation) transistor model was chosen as the first industry standard for linking the transistors/manufacturing and circuits/computer-aided-design aspects of semiconductor technology. BSIM models use original mathematical formulas based on  transistor physics research. BSIM replaced dozens of in-house models because it’s extremely accurate and highly computationally efficient. It can be used to simulate circuits containing hundred millions of transistors. BSIM also enables higher-level computer-aided integrated design tools to achieve first-silicon success without redesign. Hu has provided all the BSIM series of standard models to the semiconductor industry royalty free, and most integrated circuits created after 1996 have been designed using BSIM models. Hu and his students continue to develop new BSIM models today. Hu also made pioneering contributions to IC reliability modeling and design. His Berkeley Reliability Tool (BERT) allowed engineers for the first time to design for reliability so that manufacturers and IC design companies can be confident that what they produce will not fail in the field. The descendants of his original models are now embedded in integrated circuit design simulator tools, which has been integral to producing smaller yet more reliable and higher-performance integrated circuits.

An IEEE Life Fellow and recipient of the 2014 U.S. National Technology and Innovation Medal, Hu is the TSMC Distinguished Professor Emeritus with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences at the University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. 

2019 - Kurt E. Petersen

Kurt E. Petersen

Kurt E. Petersen’s foundational work on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) helped unify and provide direction for the field, and his commercialization of MEMS technologies has continued to transform the field to realize the many applications we take for granted today. MEMS involve miniature mechanical and electromechanical elements, such as sensors, actuators, and other microelectronics, merged onto a common silicon substrate along with integrated circuits. MEMS-based devices provide important functionality in today’s smart phones, medical devices, and smart automotive and smart human-machine interface applications. It was Petersen’s 1982 seminal review paper “Silicon as a Mechanical Material” that helped lay the foundation for future MEMS research. It summarized all the mechanical properties of silicon as well as mechanical devices made on silicon chips at that time and also anticipated future devices. Prior to this work, MEMS research consisted of many unconnected and unrelated efforts. Petersen’s paper provided the diverse group of MEMS researchers with a unified vision and a sense of community in which to develop the MEMS industry as we know it today. Petersen was also instrumental in establishing forums for the MEMS academic, industrial, and government communities to share and discuss their work. In 1984, he served as the first program chairperson for the biennial Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems regional workshop. In 1987, he was the first co-chairperson of the yearly International Conference on MEMS.

Petersen has played a significant role in developing innovative MEMS tools, co-founding six companies to commercialize his ideas. At NovaSensor (co-founded in 1985), Petersen led the development of a disposable pressure sensor for blood pressure monitoring during and after surgical operations. NovaSensor was also the first to commercialize the revolutionary silicon fusion bonding (SFB) and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) fabrication processes. Practically all of today’s MEMS high-volume products use a variation of  these processes. In 1996, he co-founded Cepheid, where he developed a totally automated, microfluidic system to test for anthrax in the U.S. mail system. Other MEMS diagnostic tests commercialized by Cepheid have transformed the molecular diagnostics industry using microfluidics and the polymerase chain reaction. Petersen became the founding chief executive officer of SiTime in 2004. SiTime commercialized MEMS devices that outperform quartz crystal oscillators for timing applications, and its products can be found in many consumer mobile devices. Petersen co-founded both Profusa and Verreon in 2008. Profusa’s small, flexible hydrogel implant for glucose sensing is causing the medical industry to change how it thinks about measuring chemicals in the body. Projects at Verreon were focused on the development of MEMS sensors and actuators on glass substrates instead of silicon to take advantage of cost efficiencies and the potential for use in the flat-panel display industry. In 2011, Petersen joined the Silicon Valley Band of Angels, which is an investment group comprised of former and current high-tech executives that funds and mentors early stage, high-tech start-up companies. Today, he spends most of his time helping and mentoring such companies, and he gives many invited talks around the world on MEMS and on entrepreneurial trends.

An IEEE Life Fellow and member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, Petersen is currently a member of the Silicon Valley Band of Angels and resides in Milpitas, CA, USA.

2018 - Bradford W. Parkinson

Bradford W. Parkinson

A visionary leader in academia, industry, and the U.S. military, Bradford W. Parkinson’s role in developing and advancing the Global Positioning System (GPS) has provided the world with technology we now take for granted and that impacts virtually all aspects of modern living. GPS has become an engine of economic development and the basis for countless applications that rely on accurate positioning and timing information. Parkinson was the chief architect of this satellite-based navigation system that works in any weather condition, anywhere in the world, 24 hours a day, to let us know precisely where we are—whether on land, at sea, or in the air. As a Colonel in the U.S. Air Force in 1973, Parkinson led the efforts to gain government approval of GPS and served as the first director of the GPS Joint Program Office. While GPS was originally funded solely by the military, Parkinson insured that certain GPS signals would be freely available for civil applications.  Under his leadership, the GPS satellites were produced and launched in 44 months. Simultaneously, a ground control system was developed and deployed to upload the satellites. Also developed were eight different kinds of user equipment to demonstrate the capabilities of the new system, and Parkinson led extensive tests to confirm that GPS could meet its goals.

As a professor at Stanford University, Parkinson participated in the development of many innovative applications for GPS while leading a research group within the Center for Positioning, Navigation, and Time. His group successfully modified a commercial Boeing 737 for robotic aircraft landings. In 1992, this plane made 110 fully “blind” landings using GPS alone. They also developed the first precision robotic farm tractor controlled to an accuracy of approximately 2 inches on a rough field. This initiated the era of “autofarming” that is now a US$900 million-a-year worldwide market. The group also created the Wide Area Augmentation System (WASS) intended to enable aircraft to rely on GPS for all phases of flight, including precision approaches to any airport within its coverage area. WAAS can also improve accuracy of personal GPS devices.  Parkinson also served as coprincipal investigator and program manager of the NASA/Stanford Relativity Gyroscope Experiment, which validated Einstein’s general theory of relativity using orbiting gyroscopes. With GPS providing precision orbit control and measurement, the experiment verified two effects of general relativity never before tested with a mechanical apparatus.

Parkinson's technical, program management, and political expertise made the initial configuration of GPS a reality. He then worked tirelessly to ensure that GPS remains an effective and reliable military capability as well as a precise and reliable international utility supporting an ever-increasing array of civil applications. Today’s mobile Long-Term Evolution (LTE) communications technology is essentially dependent on high-precision GPS timing for its operation. GPS is also integral to providing emergency services; marine, air, and automotive navigation; weather forecasting and tracking; and surveying and mapping applications.

An IEEE Life Fellow and corecipient of the 2003 Charles Stark Draper Prize, Parkinson is the Edward C. Wells Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics Emeritus at Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

2017 - Kees Schouhamer Immink

Kees Schouhamer Immink

Regarded as the most prolific contributor to the world’s consumer electronics of the late 20th century, Kees Schouhamer Immink fueled the “big bang” of digital electronics with pioneering coding techniques that have provided the foundation for all generations of optical storage media, from the compact disc (CD) to the Blu-ray disc (BD). A multitalented pioneer in technical areas ranging from coding theory and practice to electronics, mechanics, and optics, Immink has inspired generations of theorists and engineers and has made a lasting impact on how we handle data. Immink established the area of constrained codes as an important subfield of information and coding theory, and his myriad practical coding constructions have accelerated the development of digital data storage technology. Immink’s eight-to-fourteen modulation (EFM) technique for digital recordings improved playing time and was more robust to dust, fingerprints, and disc damage such as scratches, leading to the creation of the CD. The introduction of the CD in 1982 marked the beginning of the change from analog to digital sound technology. It quickly revived a sluggish music industry and essentially replaced the traditional music delivery methods of vinyl records and cassette tapes. This optical storage technology also provided low-cost, high-capacity, flexible data storage exceeding what computer hard drives could accommodate at that time.

Building on his EFM technology, Immink developed an advanced channel coding method called EFMPlus, which was integral to the design of the digital versatile disc (DVD). Offering higher storage capacity than the CD, but at the same dimensions, the DVD is able to store any kind of digital data from computer software to video programs. Upon its introduction in 1995, the DVD became the fastest adopted consumer electronics product and generated billions of dollars for the film industry. While the DVD was quickly replacing traditional video cassettes, Immink was already working on further advancements to his original inventions by developing an even higher-density optical disc format. This work evolved into the BD, which can handle high-definition content suitable for feature films and video games.

Immink was also among the first engineers to conduct experiments with optical recordable and erasable media, bringing the mini disc, CD-R, DVD-R, and BD-R formats into the homes of consumers. He also added to realizing broadcast-quality recording products for consumers with his contributions to the digital video camcorder.

With approximately 500 billion CDs, DVDs, and BDs estimated to be in use today, Immink’s inventions have impacted people all over the world. As recognition of Immink’s role in the digital media revolution, his honors include an Emmy award from the U.S. National Academy of Arts and Sciences, induction into the Consumer Electronics Hall of Fame, and knighthood by Queen Beatrix of The Netherlands.

An IEEE Life Fellow, foreign member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, and recipient of the 1999 IEEE Edison Medal, Immink is president of Turing Machines, Inc., Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

2016 - G. David Forney, Jr.

G. David Forney, Jr.

In a career spanning more than 50 years, G. David Forney, Jr., has influenced virtually every major advance in the field of coding theory, providing practical solutions that have enabled high-speed data communications for systems ranging from wired to wireless and from electrical to optical. Forney introduced concatenated codes in 1965 as error-correcting codes constructed of two or more simpler codes to achieve good performance with reasonable complexity in detecting and fixing errors during data transmission. His concatenated method became widely used for space communications, and the approach is widely practiced today for satellite communications, mobile telephony, and digital video broadcasting. Forney joined Codex Corporation to develop practical implementations of coding theory, where he designed the first coding system to go into space—a convolutional code with sequential decoding for a NASA Pioneer deep-space mission in 1968. Considered the founder of the modern modem, in 1970 Forney brought quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) to the marketplace by designing the first high-speed [9,600 bits per second (bps)] QAM telephone-line modem. This became the foundation of Codex’s commercial success, and it revolutionized the industry, providing the foundation for the international V.29 9,600 bps modem standard.

Forney also introduced the now universally used concept of trellis diagrams to describe the Viterbi algorithm, and he is considered the first to recognize the Viterbi algorithm as an optimum sequence detector rather than just a proof technique. His Forney algorithm (FA) is employed by all practical decoders for Reed-Solomon (RS) codes for computing error values after error locations in a received code word have been determined. The FA continues to be widely used in many physical-layer transmission systems and optical/magnetic storage devices, which employ RS coding for outer-layer error control. Another important contribution by Forney is the minimum-phase whitened matched filter for maximum-likelihood sequence decoding of modulation symbols in the presence of intersymbol interference and noise. When turbo codes were introduced in 1993, Forney demonstrated that they could be described as “codes on graphs.” In 2001, with what are now known as “Forney-style factor graphs,” he showed that one graph can simultaneously describe both a code and its dual, which provides for new, efficient decoding algorithms. Forney continues to contribute to error-correcting coding techniques with recent work focusing on tail-biting trellis realizations using Forney-style factor graphs.

An IEEE Life Fellow and member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering and U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Forney is currently an adjunct professor with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and the Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

2015 - Mildred Dresselhaus

Mildred Dresselhaus

With innovations that have helped mold the history of advancements in science, technology, and education in the United States and around the world, Mildred Dresselhaus has paved the way for the rise of nanotechnology and blazed a path for women in science and engineering. Known as the “queen of carbon science” based on her life-long research into the properties of graphite and carbon-based materials, the era of carbon electronics can be traced back to her tireless research efforts. During the 1960s, Dr. Dresselhaus was a pioneer in researching carbon, one of the most abundant elements, and its thermal and electrical properties when no one else seemed interested in its potential. She used magnetoreflection spectroscopy to determine the graphite band structure, which led to the currently accepted band model for graphite.

Her insights regarding the composition, structure, and properties of graphite have encouraged bold new research into single-atom-thick graphene. Graphene has potential practical applications in high-speed electronics circuits and systems. In the late 1970s she made important contributions to understanding the structure of graphite intercalation compounds. The work of her group on fullerenes and carbon nanotubes began in the early 1990s before these structures were well known. She also demonstrated the symmetry of single-wall nanotubes and how one could calculate their electronic structure. Her work on nanotubes continues today, including the important contribution of the measurement of Raman spectroscopy on isolated single-wall carbon nanotubes. Her recent work on the semiconductive properties of carbon nanotubes opens new possibilities in nanotechnology, and other recent research holds exciting promise for energy-related applications.

Dr. Dresselhaus’ public advocacy for women in engineering and science began in the mid-1970s, when the number of American women seeking undergraduate degrees in engineering began to rise. Recognizing this as an issue of great importance for the profession, Dr. Dresselhaus began actively speaking out in favor of women's access to careers in technology and science. Her unquestioned accomplishments in the laboratory and classroom gave her an unparalleled credibility in this national dialogue. Her 1975 article “Some Personal Views on Engineering Education for Women” (IEEE Transactions on Education) remains an immensely valuable and accurate account of the psychological and social challenges facing women in a male-dominated field. The article also stressed the critical importance of role models for women engineering students, which Dr. Dresselhaus herself has certainly served as through mentoring, formally and informally, countless young women across the United States and around the world.

An IEEE Life Fellow and member of the US National Academy of Engineering, Dr. Dresselhaus has received numerous awards including the US Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2014. She is currently an Institute Professor of Electrical Engineering and Physics with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

2014 - B. Jayant Baliga

B. Jayant Baliga photograph

B. Jayant Baliga is considered the world’s preeminent power semiconductor scientist. His development of the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) transformed the way we utilize power and has improved the comfort, convenience, and health of billions of people around the world while reducing environmental impact. Dr. Baliga’s invention of the IGBT in 1979 and subsequent development and commercialization while with General Electric led to the world’s most important semiconductor switch. Dr. Baliga combined the physics of bipolar and metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technologies to create a device far superior to both, resulting in lighter and more efficient power converters. His leadership and perseverance in convincing General Electric to continue investing in IGBT development and his ability to address and overcome design and technology challenges were critical to the IGBT’s successful commercialization. IGBTs enabled the creation of cost-effective and efficient automobile electronic ignition systems that have reduced gasoline consumption by an estimated 1.1 trillion gallons, resulting in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by 22 trillion pounds. The IGBT also made possible the adjustable speed motor drives for refrigeration and air conditioning and the miniature electronic ballast in energy-saving compact fluorescent bulbs. The improved efficiency of these devices due to IGBTs has resulted in a reduction in energy usage of over 50,000 terawatt hours and 56 trillion pounds in carbon dioxide emissions. IGBTs are also an essential component of compact and lightweight portable defibrillators used to control the shock delivered to victims of cardiac arrest and save the lives of hundreds of thousands of people each year. All commercially available electric and hybrid vehicles use IGBTs to control the transfer of power from the battery to the electric motors. IGBTs are also important in wind- and solar-power generation stations, converting electricity to power suitable for consumer and industrial use.

Dr. Baliga’s pioneering contributions include the “Baliga Figure of Merit” for evaluating the pros and cons of materials and devices operating in high-frequency circuits. He was able to demonstrate that wide bandgap semiconductors such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) could provide significant performance improvements over silicon for power electronics. His SiC power device innovations have been commercialized since 2005 by numerous companies for use in solar inverters and motor control applications. Dr. Baliga is also responsible for four successful spin-off companies from his research at North Carolina State University. Inventions that have been commercialized by these companies include the TMBS rectifier used as bypass diodes for solar panels, the super-linear RF silicon power MOSFETs used in cell-phone base station amplifiers, and MOSFETs used to deliver power to microprocessors and graphics chips in laptops and servers.

An IEEE Life Fellow, Dr. Baliga received the 2010 National Medal of Technology and Innovation from President Barrack Obama, the highest honor conferred by the U.S. Government to an engineer. Dr. Baliga is currently a Distinguished University Professor at North Carolina State University, Raleigh.

2013 - Irwin Mark Jacobs

Irwin Mark Jacobs

A pioneering engineer and visionary business leader, Irwin Mark Jacobs has played a central role in advancing modern digital communications with revolutionary innovations critical to the development of today’s wireless communications systems. From his beginnings as a communications theorist, Dr. Jacobs’ success lies in his ability to take ideas that advance digital technology from theory to practice and successful commercialization.

As a co-founder of technology companies that have provided important innovations, Dr. Jacobs has played a key role in the shift from analog to digital communications experienced during the past 40 years. Dr. Jacobs co-founded Qualcomm, Inc. in 1985 and grew it from a small technology firm to a Fortune 500 company. He helped lead revolutionary developments such as the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology that greatly improved cellular communications efficiency compared to analog systems. Dr. Jacobs overcame the initial skepticism and controversy involved with introducing the new technology and guided CDMA to successful implementation and standardization. CDMA would become the foundation of third-generation (3G) wireless systems. Dr. Jacobs was also instrumental in Qualcomm’s development of a satellite communications and tracking system for the trucking industry. Using spread-spectrum technology, advanced signal processing, and innovative antenna designs, the system provided the first two-way communication and positioning system for fleet management. Known commercially as OmniTRACS, the system is still in use around the world today. Prior to Qualcomm, Dr. Jacobs co-founded LINKABIT Corporation in 1968, which provided innovative semiconductor technology and programmable devices that were important to the development of satellite-to-home television services. While at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dr. Jacobs co-authored (with John Wozencraft) Principles of Communication Engineering (Wiley, 1965), which is considered one of the best communications theory textbooks ever written and is still in use today.

An IEEE Life Fellow, former Chairman of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, and Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences American Association for the Advancement of Science, Dr. Jacobs’ many honors include the U.S. National Medal of Technology (1994) and the inaugural IEEE Vehicular Technology Society Hall of Fame Award (2009). Dr. Jacobs is Founding Chairman and Chief Executive Emeritus of Qualcomm, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA.

2012 - John L.Hennessy

photo of John L. Hennessy, 2012 IEEE Medal of Honor recipient

One of the world’s top leaders in computer engineering, John L. Hennessy’s pioneering work at Stanford University as one of the early proponents of the Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture helped revolutionize how computing is performed. At a time when the industry favored the Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) architecture, Dr. Hennessy assembled a team of researchers in 1981 at Stanford to focus on the RISC architecture. He thought that computing would be more efficient with a simpler instruction set that could be processed in one clock cycle compared to the many clock cycles required for CISC. He created his MIPS (Microprocessor without Interlocked PipestageS) processor, which was well liked by academics but did not gain interest from industry, which was attached to CISC. To help RISC fulfill its potential and transfer the technology to industry, Hennessy took a sabbatical from Stanford University to found MIPS Computer Systems (now MIPS Technologies) in 1984. By the end of the 1990s, seeing MIPS’ success, most major microprocessor companies introduced RISC-based products of their own. MIPS would become one of the top computer processing architectures in the world and it is used in nearly all of today’s mobile applications as well as in gaming consoles.
A member of Stanford’s faculty since 1977 and having held positions including provost and dean of the School of Engineering, Dr. Hennessy was named Stanford University’s 10th president in 2000. As the first engineer to hold the position, Dr. Hennessy has expanded University programs related to the environment, energy, and human health. He has created a “21st Century university” with an interdisciplinary approach to addressing global concerns, changing Stanford in fundamental ways. Dr. Hennessy follows a belief in not only changing technology for the better but ensuring that technical innovations change the world for the better. He has strived to bring important research to realization and make it accessible to those who will benefit from it. In 2005, he was named the first holder of Stanford’s Bing Presidential Professorship.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Hennessy is currently president of Stanford University, Calif.

2011 - Morris Chang

Morris Chang

Morris Chang’s visionary leadership shaped the technology policy for an entire nation and revolutionized how the semiconductor industry does business around the world. With pioneering concepts such as the dedicated IC foundry, “fabless” IC design and virtual fabrication services, he revolutionized Taiwan’s semiconductor development and impacted the global semiconductor industry. Dr. Chang was recruited by the Taiwan government to help strengthen its semiconductor industry and became president of Taiwan’s Industrial Technology Research Institute in 1985. He founded the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) in 1987 as the world’s first dedicated IC foundry company. By focusing on manufacturing other companies’ ICs, TSMC met the needs of chip manufacturers requiring outside contractors for overflow and specialty work and provided services for companies lacking the resources to do their own fabrication work. While there was skepticism concerning the viability of such a business model, Dr. Chang was persistent and was able to demonstrate its advantages. TSMC became the template for fabrication houses that followed, and through Dr. Chang’s leadership it developed into the largest silicon foundry in the world.

The creation of TSMC sparked the development of fabless IC companies during the 1990s. Dedicated foundries reduce the cost of entry for these companies by manufacturing their chips but without competing with them. Utilizing the strengths of the foundry concept, Chang’s “virtual fab” service model incorporates cutting-edge information technology to provide companies with the same benefits and convenience as if they had their own dedicated IC fabs, while still maintaining confidentiality. However, the virtual fab reduces the burdens of capital investment, research and development and intellectual property efforts normally required.

While at Texas Instruments (TI) during the 1960s and 1970s, Dr. Chang managed the world’s largest semiconductor business. Under his leadership, TI’s “TTL” electronic logic circuit was established as the standard logic family, TI’s calculator ICs fueled the growth of the pocket calculator market and TI became a leader in metal-oxide-semiconductor memories. TI also introduced the innovative Speak & Spell handheld educational device under Dr. Chang’s management.

An IEEE Life Member, Dr. Chang is currently the chairman and chief executive officer of the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd., Hsinchu, Taiwan.

2010 - Andrew J. Viterbi

headshot of Dr. Viterbi

As developer of the Viterbi Algorithm and co-founder of Qualcomm Incorporated, Andrew J. Viterbi’s contributions to communications technology have impacted people’s lives throughout the world.

There is a Viterbi detector in practically every disk drive and high-capacity MP3 player, images transmitted from deep space are made possible by the Viterbi algorithm, and third-generation mobile telephones employ one or more of Dr. Viterbi’s systems. He developed the Viterbi Algorithm in 1967, which was a breakthrough in wireless technology that separated information (voice and data) from background noise. Fundamentally changing how digital communications are processed, the algorithm is used in most digital cellular phones and satellite receivers as well as in such diverse fields as magnetic recording, voice recognition and DNA sequence analysis. Dr. Viterbi co-founded Qualcomm Incorporated, San Diego, Calif., with Irwin Jacobs in 1985. His vision and technical leadership at Qualcomm pioneered the revolutionary Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) system as a more efficient method for digital mobile communications. Utilizing spread-spectrum technology, CDMA allows many users to occupy the same time and frequency allocations. It provides more efficient use of power and bandwidth, enables more calls in the same geographic region and emits a lower level of radiated power in the phone/device.

An IEEE Life Fellow, Dr. Viterbi holds memberships in the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has received the National Medal of Science in 2008 from U.S. President George W. Bush as well as several IEEE awards and honors from other international organizations. The University of Southern California (USC), Los Angeles, renamed its school of engineering the Viterbi School of Engineering in 2004. Dr. Viterbi is currently president of the Viterbi Group, San Diego, Calif., which invests in startup companies in the wireless communications and network infrastructure sectors, and he also holds the titles of Presidential Chair Visiting Professor at USC and Distinguished Visiting Professor at the Technion, Haifa, Israel.

2009 - Robert N. Dennard

photo of Robert Dennard

Robert H. Dennard has been a pioneering figure in the semiconductor industry. His invention of one-transistor dynamic random access memory (DRAM) and contributions to principles of scaling MOS devices brought about far-reaching and fundamental changes in science and technology, impacting a broad range of industries from aviation to telecommunications.

He was granted a patent for DRAM in 1968, and it first began to appear in products in the 1970s. Now used by all computer component and system manufacturers, DRAM requires less power and costs much less than previous magnetic memory and also is less complex and, therefore, denser than the other semiconductor memory cells previously developed. At the time of its development, the largest memory configuration in a computer was 1 MB, requiring several kilowatts of power, while today 1 to 2 GB of DRAM is common, requiring only a few watts of power.

Dr. Dennard’s development of scaling theory has also been a driving force in microelectronics. Along with some researchers, Dr. Dennard developed a concept of MOS transistor and circuit scaling that provides for systematic reduction of MOS integrated circuit dimensions and predicts the benefits of such reduction in improved circuit performance, lower power and greater density. They showed how to design devices and highly integrated circuits at the micrometer level at a time when device fabrication was at much larger dimensions. In the 1980s, he generalized the original work to show how to design devices down to submicrometer dimensions with further improvements in performance and density. The scaling concept led the way from the 5-µm devices of the early 1970s to today’s 0.045-µm devices used in Gigabit memory chips and powerful microprocessors.

Dr. Dennard’s research career spans over 50 years and includes 52 U.S. patents and many awards and recognitions, including the IEEE Cledo Brunetti Award, the IEEE Edison Medal, the National Medal of Technology and induction into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. In 2009, Dr. Dennard was named recipient of the Charles Stark Draper Prize. An IEEE Life Fellow, Dr. Dennard is an IBM Fellow at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York, where he continues to investigate the limits of scaling and future evolution of microelectronics.

2008 - Gordon E. Moore

photo of Gordon Moore

Gordon E. Moore, co-founder and chairman of the board, emeritus, of Intel Corporation, is one of the pioneers of semiconductor and microprocessor technology. He is the namesake of Moore’s Law, one of the guiding principles of the global semiconductor industry. Introduced in 1965, Moore’s Law stipulated that the number of transistors on a silicon chip would double each year for ten years. In 1975, he revised the theory, stating that the complexity of chips would double every two years. Moore’s Law remains an industry guidepost today for a US$200 billion per year industry that feeds a trillion dollar a year electronics industry.

In addition to his engineering contributions, Moore is among those responsible for the formation of two of the semiconductor industry’s best-known companies – Intel Corporation and Fairchild Semiconductor.

Dr. Moore was among a group of eight scientists and engineers that founded Fairchild in 1957, to develop and manufacture a diffused silicon transistor. As head of Fairchild’s research and development department, Dr. Moore led the creation of the first family of integrated logic circuits. Capitalizing on the almost simultaneous inventions of the integrated circuit and the MOSFET (Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistor), Fairchild became the leading producer of bipolar integrated logic circuits and was responsible for much of the device understanding for MOSFETs, which are used in most microprocessors.

To manufacture integrated circuit memories using the MOSFET transistor, Dr. Moore left Fairchild in 1968 with Robert Noyce to co-found Intel Corporation. Dr. Moore later led Intel from being simply a memory company to one focused on microprocessor development. Under his leadership, Intel has produced a number of products based on LSI technology, including the world’s first microprocessor. The development of the microprocessor is considered among the most significant developments in all of technology, and Intel’s success in this area has made it the largest semiconductor company in the world.

An IEEE Life Fellow and member of the National Academy of Engineering, Dr. Moore has received numerous awards, recognitions and honors, including the IEEE Founders Medal, the U.S. National Medal of Technology and the Presidential Medal of Freedom, America’s highest civilian honor. He most recently received the EE Times ACE Awards Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2000, Dr. Moore and his wife created the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation to focus on the environment, higher education and science and the San Francisco Bay Area. He holds a bachelor’s degree in chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, and a doctorate in chemistry and physics from the California Institute of Technology.

2007 - Thomas Kailath

photo of Thomas Kailath

In a career spanning more than 40 years, Thomas Kailath has distinguished himself with significant accomplishments as a scholar, academic and entrepreneur. Currently Hitachi America Professor of Engineering, Emeritus, at Stanford University, Dr. Kailath is a respected leader in digital signal processing and system theory. In addition to influencing modern work in semiconductor manufacturing and wireless communications, he has also mentored and personally trained several generations of electrical engineers and applied mathematicians.

Dating back to his early writings in the late 1950s, Dr. Kailath recognized that engineering theory would play a critical role in meeting technological challenges in the disciplines of communication, computation, control and signal processing. Since then, his theoretical work has led to fundamental breakthroughs in communications, information theory, signal detection and estimation, sensor array signal processing, VLSI architectures for signal processing and semiconductor manufacturing. He also contributed to probability and statistics, linear algebra, and matrix and operator theory.

He has written several books, authored or co-authored over 300 journal articles and papers, and shared in the development of 13 patents. Specific contributions by him and his over ninety Ph.D. students and postdoctoral scholars include algorithms for feedback communications, universal estimator-correlator detector structures for random signals in noise and the concept of displacement structure leading to fast algorithms in many fields, such as estimation, control, direction of arrival estimation, adaptive filtering, channel identification and equalization, VLSI systems for signal processing, matrix theory and linear algebra. Much of his early work outpaced what could be implemented at the time. As technology advanced, Dr. Kailath and his students were able to successfully address industrial issues in areas such as optical lithography and multiple antenna wireless communications.

An IEEE Life Fellow, he is a past president of the IEEE Information Theory Society and a recipient of its Shannon Award. Other honors include - IEEE James H. Mulligan Jr, Education and the IEEE Jack S. Kilby Signal Processing Medals, Guggenheim and Churchill fellowships, and election to the National Academy of Engineering, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences, the Indian National Academy of Engineering and the Silicon Valley Engineering Hall of Fame. Dr. Kailath received his bachelor?s from the College of Engineering in Pune, India, and a master?s and doctorate degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

2006 - James D. Meindl

photo of James Meindl

During his career as a scientist, educator and high-level technology executive, Dr. James D. Meindl, Director and Pettit Chair Professor of the Joseph M. Pettit Microelectronic Research Center at Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, has logged a string of exceptional accomplishments.

Early in his career, Dr. Meindl developed micropower integrated circuits for portable military equipment at the U.S. Army Electronics Laboratory in Fort Monmouth, New Jersey. He then joined Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, where he developed low-power integrated circuits and sensors for a portable electronic reading aid for the blind, miniature wireless radio telemetry systems for biomedical research, and non-invasive ultrasonic imaging and blood-flow measurement systems. Dr. Meindl was the founding director of the Integrated Circuits Laboratory and a founding co-director of the Center for Integrated Systems at Stanford. The latter was a model for university and industry cooperative research in microelectronics.

From 1986 to 1993, Dr. Meindl was senior vice president for academic affairs and provost of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York. In this role he was responsible for all teaching and research. 

He joined Georgia Tech in 1993 as director of its Microelectronic Research Center. In 1998, he became the founding director of the Interconnect Focus Center, where he led a team of more than 60 faculty members from MIT, Stanford, Rensselaer, SUNY Albany, and Georgia Tech in a partnership with industry and government. His research at Georgia Tech includes exploring different solutions for solving interconnectivity problems that arise from trying to interconnect billions of transistors within a tiny chip.

Over his career, Dr. Meindl has supervised over 80 Ph.D. graduates at Stanford University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and Georgia Tech, who have gone on to have a profound impact on the semiconductor industry.

An IEEE Life Fellow, Dr. Meindl is the recipient of the Benjamin Garver Lamme Medal of the American Association for Engineering Education, the J.J.Ebbers Award of the IEEE Electron Devices Society, the IEEE Education Medal and the IEEE Solid State Circuits Award.

2005 - James L. Flanagan

Dr. James L. Flanagan has profoundly influenced our understanding of how humans speak and hear. A pioneer in the areas of speech analysis, speech transmission and acoustics, his early research led to increased understanding of how the human ear processes signals, the development of advanced methods to assist hearing and improved voice communication systems. These achievements, which are in addition to his primary telecommunications work, include an electronic artificial larynx, playback recording techniques for the visually impaired, and automatic speech recognition to help the motor impaired.

Formerly director of the Information Principles Research Laboratory at Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey, Dr. Flanagan was one of the first researchers to see the potential of speech as a means for human-machine communication.He has contributed to current techniques for automatic speech synthesis and recognition, and to signal coding algorithms for telecommunications and voicemail systems, including voicemail storage, voice dialing and call routing. He also created auto-directive microphone arrays for high-quality sound capture in teleconferencing and pioneered the use of digital computers for acoustic signal processing.

More recently, as vice president for Research and director of the Center for Advanced Information Processing at Rutgers University in Piscataway, New Jersey, he has been a leader in the development of global systems for human-computer interfaces that are actuated by speech and which incorporate sight and touch modalities.

An IEEE Life Fellow, Dr. Flanagan is a former president of the IEEE Signal Processing Society and received its Achievement Award. He is also the recipient of the IEEE Centennial Medal, the U.S. National Medal of Science and is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering and the U.S. National Academy of Sciences.