The pioneering and continued efforts of Yasuhiko Arakawa, Pallab Bhattacharya, and Dieter Bimberg enabled the scientific and technological marvel known as the quantum dot (QD) laser, which is replacing semiconductor lasers in a growing range of areas including optical communications, medical and industrial applications, and silicon photonics. Their contributions provide the basis for the development of advanced systems for data- and telecommunications and quantum cryptography. The successful operation of the QD laser depended on the realization of nanostructured atom-like quantum dots in the gain region, but the technology for this did not exist. Arakawa, Bhattacharya, and Bimberg’s groups solved this problem by creating a laser that has vastly superior characteristics compared to traditional semiconductor lasers, including those on silicon substrates by the first two. In 1982, Arakawa proposed the concept of the QD laser and theoretically showed temperature insensitivity of threshold current in the device. He experimentally demonstrated the reduced temperature dependence of threshold current using high magnetic fields and also forecasted theoretically enhanced modulation dynamics and reduced spectral linewidth. He then worked on developing high-performance QD lasers, demonstrating temperature-insensitive QD lasers, and contributed to their first commercialization. Bhattacharya turned his attention to QD lasers in the 1980s when his group accidently observed the formation of self-organized QDs in the strained channel region of high-speed modulation doped transistors. His group was one of the first to report a room-temperature QD laser, and he also demonstrated the laser’s temperature-invariant operation, near-zero chirp, and high-speed modulation, as well as the first III-nitride-based QD lasers and LEDs with emission in the entire R-B-G wavelength range for displays. Bimberg demonstrated the first low- and room-temperature injection lasers based on self-organized quantum dots. He pioneered the general effective mass, 8-band k.p and many particle theories of quantum dots presenting the basis to understand the electronic, optical, and transport properties of QDs and QD devices. His fundamental discovery of the relevance of strain for self-organized growth, established novel growth technologies for devices with properties superior to those of quantum-well structures.
An IEEE Life Fellow and foreign member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, Arakawa is a Specially Appointed Professor and Professor Emeritus with The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
An IEEE Life Fellow, a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering and a Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors, Bhattacharya is the Charles M. Vest Distinguished University Professor and James R. Mellor Professor of Engineering with the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
An IEEE Life Fellow, member of the German and Russian Academies of Sciences, and foreign member of the U.S. National Academies of Engineering and Inventors, Bimberg is executive director of the “Bimberg Chinese-German Center for Green Photonics” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences at CIOMP, Changchun, China.
A leading innovator in the field of photonics, Joe C. Campbell’s development and advancement of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) have raised the sensitivity of optical receivers to a new level to increase the amount of information that can be transmitted in high-bandwidth fiber-optic networks. Optoelectronic devices play an integral role in communication systems with lasers and photodetectors acting as information sources and receivers, and the APD has become the standard for long-haul, high-bitrate systems. APDs are also widely used in laser range finders, in biomedical imaging applications such as positron emission tomography, and in particle physics experiments. Beginning with his work at Bell Labs in the 1980s and continuing through his academic career at the University of Texas at Austin and the University of Virginia, Campbell has carried out groundbreaking work that has enabled the realization and advancement of high-performance APD-based fiber-optic receivers crucial to long-distance telecommunications links. Campbell was responsible for the initial design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of the APD, and he demonstrated the order-of-magnitude improvement in system performance that APDs enabled. He also demonstrated the critical importance of separate avalanche and detection (SAM), as well as the importance of charge (SACM) and grading (SAGM) layers in this design. He showed the importance of nonlocal effects and how APD receivers can be made superior to existing theories as a result of this effect in superlattice APDs. Campbell was the first to show that the multiplication noise of these high-speed APDs did not degrade for very thin multiplication regions. Campbell also modeled the noise and frequency response of the SAM-APD. His analytic treatment of the frequency response includes all the physical mechanisms that affect the speed. This model is widely accepted as the most accurate method to simulate the frequency response of the technologically important APD.
An IEEE Life Fellow and member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, Campbell is the Lucian Carr Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.
The pioneering achievements of Ching W. Tang, Stephen R. Forrest, and Mark Thompson in developing, advancing, and commercializing light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have created a multibillion-dollar industry for advanced lighting and display applications. OLED technology features a series of thin light-emitting fields to provide brighter light but with less energy compared to traditional LED bulbs and liquid-crystal displays (LCDs). It was the groundbreaking discoveries of Tang during the late 1970s that thin-film devices could emit light when a forward voltage was applied that demonstrated the potential of OLED technology and spurred a new field focused on developing organic optoelectronic devices. He created the organic heterojunction, implemented the double-layer structure for enhancing the efficiency of electron hole recombination, developed new approaches for efficient electrodes, and discovered important emitter materials. Based on Tang’s accomplishments, the first full-color active matrix OLED displays were commercialized.
Building on Tang’s OLED foundations, Forrest and Thompson took the technology to the next level by recognizing that OLED efficiency was being limited by the spin of excited states. They introduced iridium-based phosphorescent dyes that increased internal OLED efficiency from 25% to near 100% and enabled OLEDs to compete with LCDs. To overcome the belief that OLEDs would never be stable enough for use in commercial electronic devices, Universal Display Corporation (UDC) was founded to tackle OLED performance and stability issues. With UDC, Forrest and Thompson engineered electron and hole balance in the emissive layer using multiple new “guest and host” materials in conjunction with new device design and demonstrated high-efficiency red and green OLEDs with less than 5% degradation over multiple years of continuous use at display brightness. Their work fueled the launch of today’s multibillion-dollar OLED industry that provides the display technologies dominating mobile electronic appliances and large-screen, high-definition televisions.
An American Physical Society Fellow and member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, Tang is a Professor at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong and a Professor at the University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA.
An IEEE Life Fellow and member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering and the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Forrest is the Peter A. Franken Distinguished University Professor and Paul G. Goebel Professor of Engineering at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
A U.S. National Academy of Inventors Fellow and recipient of the Alexander von Humboldt Research Award (2015), Thompson holds the Ray R. Irani Chair of Chemistry, Materials Science, and Chemical Engineering at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Masayoshi Esashi has been a pioneering force of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology for over 40 years, developing and bringing to market the tiny sensors and actuators that provide advanced functionalities in today’s automobiles, cellular phones, industrial equipment, and medical devices. Esashi’s key contributions to biomedical microsensors began in the 1970s, where his work on an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) led to the development of medical catheters for in-vivo pH and PCO2 monitoring. During the 1980s, Esashi developed many MEMS and integrated circuit (IC) devices including a servo-type accelerometer, networked tactile sensor, multifreedom active catheter, and a monolithically integrated capacitive pressure sensor that was commercialized by Toyoda Machine Works. The microfluidic system developed by Esashi during the 1990s, which featured microchannels, flow sensors, valves, and pumps on a silicon wafer, provided the foundation for the micro total analysis system/lab-on-a-chip technologies of today. To provide the often-lacking tools needed for continued innovation of MEMS-based devices, Esashi used his IC research and development experience to help develop etchers, deposition machines, and special lithography and evaluation tools. His development of an ion-reactive etcher enabled the fabrication of deep trenches in silicon, which was critical to the commercialization of inertial sensors now used in over 1 million automobiles for active safety control. Another hallmark of Esashi’s career has been his belief in “open innovation” collaboration. He established the Micro System Integration Center where companies can work together to advance MEMS technologies. This has resulted in wafer-level-based hetero-integrated devices such as piezoelectric MEMS switches for mobile phones, monolithic tunable filters for cognitive radios, MEMS-on-IC networked tactile sensors for human-friendly robots, and massively arrayed electron beam emitters for maskless high-speed nanolithography.
An IEEE member and recipient of the Medal with Purple Ribbon from the government of Japan, Esashi is a professor with Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.
Known for his deep understanding of device physics, Dimitri Antoniadis has made pioneering contributions to the direction of the integrated circuit (IC) microelectronics industry by advancing the capabilities of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETS). MOSFETs are used for amplifying and switching signals, and today’s microprocessors and memory devices contain billions of them. In 1978 while at Stanford University, Dr. Antoniadis developed the SUPREM process simulator, which was the first computer-aided design tool for silicon semiconductor devices and ICs. SUPREM became the preeminent simulator used by practically all IC manufacturers. His work on deep submicron MOS devices during the 1980s was one of the first demonstrations of nano-scale MOSFETs, and his innovations have continued to the foundation of today’s high-performance silicon FETs. At MIT, Dr. Antoniadis’ groundbreaking research in 1985 proved the feasibility of sub-100-nm MOSFETs and provided the first demonstration of source-to-channel electron injection velocities exceeding saturation velocity. Known as “velocity overshoot,” this provides an increase in current drive in short-channel MOSFETs, enabling higher performance previously not thought attainable. His development of the virtual-source model to describe the behavior of very short channel devices has shown the role of high carrier velocity and mobility in obtaining maximum device performance. With the ability to accurately simulate the characteristics of MOSFETs down to 22 nm and beyond, the model has been adopted by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) for predicting the future of MOSFET scaling. As director for twelve years of the Materials, Structures, and Devices Center, Dr. Antoniadis has helped determine the most promising path for future microelectronics by pursuing scaling of MOS to its ultimate limit and interdisciplinary exploration of new-frontier devices.
An IEEE Life Fellow and member of the US National Academy of Engineering, Dr. Antoniadis is currently a professor and the Ray and Maria Stata Chair in Electrical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
The development of the deep reactive ion etching process by Franz Laermer and Andrea Urban revolutionized the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) industry by enabling cost-effective production and proliferation of devices such as the tiny sensors found in automobile air bag and anti-skidding systems, as well as in today’s smartphones and laptop computers. Patented in 1994, the process allowed for precise manufacturing of complex structures in high-quality mono- and poly-crystalline silicon compared to existing anisotropic wet etching methods. Considered a major turning point in the commercialization of MEMS technology, the process enabled the design of more sophisticated and compact devices but at lower cost. It helped overcome the cost barrier to widespread use of silicon accelerometers for air bag sensors, and yaw-rate sensors for car stability control, making these important safety features accessible to more than just high-end automobiles. The process also made possible new generations of affordable sensors used in mobile phone applications, hard-disk protection in laptops, and human-gesture recognition in video game controllers. The technology has also impacted MEMS devices in healthcare, such as DNA chips and disposable blood pressure sensors. Dr. Laermer and Ms. Urban were also instrumental in guiding Bosch to license the process to other manufacturers instead of tightly guarding the intellectual property. This helped in the tremendous growth and commercial success of the MEMS industry, with large manufacturers using the process for their own MEMS-based devices and enabling the start-up of many smaller companies to provide contributions to MEMS technology. The pair was honored with the 2007 European Inventor of the Year Award (Industry Category) for their work on and subsequent success of the deep reactive ion etching process.
Dr. Laermer is vice president of corporate sector research and advance engineering – microsystems, with Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany. Ms. Urban is a senior expert with the Engineering Sensor Process Technology Department, Robert Bosch GmbH, Reutlingen, Germany.
Known for pushing the envelope in developing advanced lithography methods, Burn J. Lin’s innovations have revolutionized integrated circuit production and enabled the continued miniaturization of electronic devices. Dr. Lin’s vision has consistently provided advancements that have extended the potential of optical lithography. He pioneered immersion lithography and was the driver of its adoption by the semiconductor industry over traditional optical lithography methods. Optical lithography is used to delineate the circuit patterns of an integrated circuit and has enabled feature sizes of electronic devices to scale down. However, when the industry was looking to reduce the imaging wavelength from 197 to 157 nm to achieve the next reduction in device feature size, Dr. Lin saw an expensive dead end with current optical lithography methods and proposed immersion lithography in 2002. With immersion lithography, Dr. Lin demonstrated that replacing air with water in the gap between the lens and wafer surface provides higher resolution potential than with dry optics. His perseverance in convincing the industry to make the change to immersion lithography has extended Moore’s law from 40 nm to potentially as low as 10 nm. That at least 82% of all transistors currently in the world have been made with immersion lithography is a testament to Dr. Lin’s impact. Throughout his 42-year career in lithography, Dr. Lin pioneered deep-UV lithography, multilayer resist systems, simulation of partially coherent images in 3D, resolution and depth of focus scaling equations, Exposure-Defocus window, and k1 reduction using resolution restoration and enhancement.
An IEEE Life Fellow and member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, Dr. Lin’s many honors include the IEEE Cledo Brunetti Award (2009). Dr. Lin is a Vice President of Research and Development and the Distinguished Fellow with the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd., Hsinchu.
Mark T. Bohr, Robert S. Chau, and Tahir Ghani have played key leadership roles at Intel Corp. in developing the three biggest changes in transistor technology over the past decade. Their work has allowed the continued shrinking of transistor technology resulting in smaller, faster, and more energy-efficient microprocessors. The first revolutionary change in transistor technology was the team’s development of silicon germanium strained-silicon transistors, first described by Dr. Ghani in 2003. Applied in Intel’s 90-nm technology node, these transistors were the first material innovations implemented to improve transistor performance without increasing current leakage. This method improves electron and hole mobility in a transistor, providing faster on-off switching and resulting in faster microprocessors. Intel began volume production of the 90-nm transistors in 2003. The team’s second contribution to the continued scaling of chips was the high-k metal gate transistor that permitted scaling to the 45-nm generation. This technology overcame the performance and leakage limits presented by not being able to scale the gate dielectric in previous nodes. Intel replaced traditional silicon dioxide materials with a novel high-k dielectric and special metal gate electrode to achieve record-setting transistor performance with dramatically reduced current leakage. Intel began high-volume production of 45-nm microprocessors in 2007. The team’s third innovation was the tri-gate transistor featured in Intel’s 22-nm processors announced in 2011. Utilizing three sides of tall and narrow silicon fins to provide better gate control of current compared to traditional planar devices, these transistors provide significantly lower operating voltage, lower current leakage, and more “on state” current. This invention allows transistors that are smaller, faster, and use less power than ever before.
An IEEE Fellow, Mr. Bohr is currently an Intel Senior Fellow and director of process architecture and integration at Intel Corp., Hillsboro, Ore., where he has worked since 1978.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Chau is currently an Intel Senior Fellow and director of transistor research and nanotechnology at Intel Corp., Hillsboro, Ore., where he has worked since 1989.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Ghani is currently an Intel Fellow and director of transistor technology and integration at Intel Corp., Hillsboro, Ore., where he has worked since 1994.
Considered one of the premier authorities on crystalline-silicon solar cell technology, processing and manufacturing, Richard M. Swanson has enabled solar power to become a viable clean-energy resource. Known for a special ability to bridge fundamental and applied research and to bring laboratory concepts to manufacturing more quickly, Dr. Swanson is internationally recognized for both his research and industry accomplishments. His conceptualization, development and commercialization of the point-contact silicon solar cell addressed the challenge of improving efficiencies of converting solar power to electricity in photovoltaic systems. Dr. Swanson’s invention is a high-efficiency silicon photovoltaic concentrator cell that uses light-trapping techniques and point-diffused contacts on the rear surface for collection of current. Dr. Swanson shepherded his laboratory concept to viable consumer use by founding SunPower Corporation in 1991 to develop and commercialize cost-effective photovoltaic power systems. Early on, the company’s solar cells helped power Honda Corporation to victory in the 1993 World Solar Challenge and propelled the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s high-altitude solar-powered airplane “Helios” to an altitude of 96,863 feet—a record for a nonrocket-powered aircraft. Today, SunPower is a world leader in photovoltaic systems ranging from residential rooftops to commercial systems to large solar farms. Dr. Swanson has continued his photovoltaic research and development to provide a roadmap for future enhancements of silicon solar technology to further improve conversion efficiencies.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Swanson is currently the president and chief technical officer at SunPower Corporation, San Jose, Calif.
Chenming Calvin Hu’s seminal work on MOS reliability and device modeling has had enormous impact on the continued scaling of electronic devices, enabling smaller yet more functional and higher-performance integrated circuits. Dr. Hu’s work has addressed reliability and scaling issues with models and simulation tools that are critical to current predictive capabilities in the semiconductor industry.
During the 1980s, Dr. Hu developed models capable of predicting circuit failures caused by hot electron effects, oxide breakdown and wearout, metal interconnect failure and the effects of external ionizing radiation. This led to the development of highly reliable integrated circuits. Dr. Hu led the team that created the FinFET, a promising MOSFET with a multiple-gate structure that will allow much smaller transistors to be built and has already enabled several corporations and universities to set records for designing the smallest transistor. Dr. Hu also contributed to the creation of the Berkley Short-Channel IGFET Model (BSIM) series of compact models, which most major chip manufacturers have made their preferred choice for circuit simulation. The research on transistor size reduction by Dr. Hu led to innovations such as variable threshold transistors, low-power flash memory cells, ultra-thin-body devices and multiple-gate structures.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Hu has co-authored three books, 800 research papers and supervised 60 doctoral students in the field of semiconductor technology. He served as TSMC’s Chief Technology Officer from 2001–2004 and is currently the TSMC Distinguished Professor of Microelectronics at the University of California, Berkeley.
James Fergason, Wolfgang Helfrich, and Martin Schadt each contributed greatly to the development of twisted-nematic liquid crystal technology. The technology is the display of choice for laptop computers, mobile phones, television sets and hundreds of industrial and consumer products.
Working separately, Helfrich and Fergason conducted fundamental research that contributed to the establishment of twisted-nematic technology, with Helfrich and Schadt later collaborating on the development of a twisted-nematic cell, which led to the first liquid crystal display components. Twisted-nematic mode enabled the development of a practical flat panel display for a wide range of applications and is considered one of the most important technological achievements of the 20th century.
Dr. Helfrich is a professor at the Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Freie Universitaet in Berlin, Germany. He worked for the Canadian National Research Council, lectured at the Technical University in Munich, Germany and was a researcher at both the David Sarnoff Research Center in New Jersey and Hoffmann-La Roche in Switzerland. Dr. Helfrich has published more than 20 papers in the liquid crystal field and has received numerous awards, among them the Hewlett-Packard EPS Europhysics Prize. He holds a doctorate from the Technical University in Munich, Germany.
Dr. Schadt is the managing director at MS High-Tech Consulting. He worked for the Canadian National Research Council, is a former director, chief technology officer and CEO of Rolic, Ltd.,
and was the head of the Roche Liquid Crystals research department. He has published 167 scientific papers, co-authored four books and holds 116 patents, and previously received the Roche Research and Development Prize and Karl Ferdinand Braun Prize of the American Society for Information Display (SID); highest recognition Award of SID. Dr. Schadt received his doctorate from the University of Basel, Switzerland.
Dr. Fergason is the founder and member of Fergason Patent Properties, LLC. Previously, he founded and was president of both the International Liquid Crystal Company and Optical
Shields. Fergason has published more than 40 papers and holds 120 U.S. patents in the field of liquid crystal displays and related devices. Dr. Fergason has received numerous honors including
the Lemmelson-MIT prize, Francis Darnes award of SID and is an inductee of the National Inventors Hall of Fame. He holds a bachelors and an honorary degree from the University of Missouri.
Dr. Nicolaas Frans de Rooij is a leading researcher in the area of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) in Europe, whose work led to drastic improvements in the design and production of technological devices. His achievements have had a huge affect on medical and space exploration technology.
Currently serving as director of the Institute of Microtechnology at the University of Neuchatel, Switzerland, Dr. de Rooij built up the Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Laboratory (SAMLAB) as one of the first university laboratories on MEMS in Europe. Over 300 scientific and technical publications and presentations in major journals and at international conferences have resulted from research done at SAMLAB. De Rooij was a key player in the development of silicon etching technologies that became the basis for forming precise microstructures used in applications such as pressure sensors and accelerometers. A strong advocate of MEMS, de Rooij has made numerous contributions to organizing international conferences, workshops and summits. He also has directed projects that have resulted in the integration of fully functional MEMS for sensing and control aboard the Space Shuttle’s Space Lab. Most recently, de Rooij’s group contributed to the production of the first micromechanical silicon-based components, such as microgears and microsprings, for use in high-performance mechanical watches.
An IEEE Fellow, de Rooij has authored or co-authored over 250 technical papers. Dr. de Rooij has a master’s of science from State University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and a doctorate from Twente University of Technology, Enschede, The Netherlands.
Hideo Sunami, Mitsumasa Koyanagi and Kiyoo Itoh are responsible for three of the major milestones in the evolution of modern dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). Their development of trench and stacked capacitor cells and folded data line cells resulted in unmatched high signal-to-noise ratio. Today, three decades after their invention, these cells remain the de facto standard for the DRAM industry.
Dr. Sunami was, in 1975, clearly ahead of his time when he invented the trench capacitor cell while the 4Kb DRAM was still the industry standard. This capacitor ultimately drove the development of dry etching, defect control and inspection associated with high-aspect ratio trenches. Today, the trench capacitor cell is used widely in commodity DRAM products and embedded applications. The concept also includes present cylindrical stack capacitor cells. He is currently a professor at the Research Center for Nanodevices and Systems, Hiroshima University in Hiroshima, Japan.
In 1976, Dr. Koyanagi devised the stacked capacity cell, the dominant DRAM cell since the 1-Mb generation came into being. His work has stimulated research and development on a variety of stacked capacitor cell structures,capacitor insulators and capacitor electrode structures, including those using hemispherical grain, high-k material and metal/insulator/metal. His work has also been successfully applied to other memory devices with three-dimensional stacked structures, such as ferroelectric RAM (FRAM). He is currently a professor in the Department of Bioengineering and Robotics, Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan.
In 1974, Dr. Itoh conceived the concept of the folded data-line cell, which uses a pair of balanced data lines to eliminate various noise components. Since that time, this cell has been adopted for nearly all DRAM chips since produced. A Fellow at Hitachi, Ltd. in Tokyo, where he is responsible for all research and development, he has also developed key DRAM devices and circuits such as the triple-well structure, on-chip voltage down-converters and subthreshold-current reduction circuits.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Sunami is the recipient of the IEEE Cledo Brunetti Award, the IEEE Electron Devices Society (EDS) Paul Rappaport Award and the Tokyo Governor?s Award - Distinguished Inventor.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Koyanagi is the recipient of the IEEE Cledo Brunetti Award, SSDM Award of the International Conference on Solid-State Devices and Materials, Commendation by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology - Person of science and technological merits (Japan),and the Okochi Memorial Technology Prize.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Itoh has received the IEEE Solid State Circuits Award, the EDS Paul Rappaport Award, Commendation by the Minister of State for Science and Technology - Person of science and technological merits (Japan),the National Invention Award - Prize of the Patent Attorney?s Association of Japan,?and the national Medal of Honor with Purple Ribbon (Japan).
A U.S. National Medal of Technology Laureate and a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Purdue University in West Lafayette,Indiana, Dr.Jerry M.Woodall changed the way research is conducted in compound semiconductors. His contributions, in turn,have sparked the successful commercialization of a broad range of new opto-electric and high-speed devices.
Earlier in his career, as a staff researcher at the IBM Research Division in Yorktown Heights, New York, Dr.Woodall developed the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of the gallium arsenide (GaAs) high-efficiency IR light emitting diodes used in remote control and data-link applications. He also pioneered the use of liquid phase epitaxy of gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAIAs) and the GaAIAs/GaAs heterojunction, which he used to fabricate super-bright red LEDs, high-efficiency solar cells and the heterojunction bipolar transistor used in cellular telephones. He tapped this same technology to create the ?pseudomorphic? high-electron-mobility transistor widely used in devices and circuits, which offers highly uniform thickness, excellent repeatability, low maintenance, high throughput and low cost of ownership, among other advantages.
An IEEE Fellow, he has received the IEEE Jack A. Morton Award and the IEEE Third Millennium Medal, five major IBM Research Division awards and 30 IBM Invention Achievement Awards. He is the founder and first chairman of the Energy Technology Division of the Electrochemical Society and a recipient of its Edward Goodrich Acheson Award.