Both a technical innovator and manager of some of the most advanced radar systems ever conceived, developed, and deployed, Mark E. Davis has established a sustained history of outstanding and pioneering contributions to radar systems, radar phenomenology, and radar signal processing. Among his many accomplishments, Davis led the team that developed a new generation of airborne microwave radars known as modular survivable radar (MSR), utilizing emerging technologies of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) and very-large-scale integrated circuits (VLSI). A breakthrough in radar surveillance technology, MSR provided novel, multimode features that were vastly superior to competitive systems, such as achieving an order of magnitude improvement in mission reliability; performing multimode, simultaneous detection; and tracking of ground targets by employing ten independent sum and difference beams. It also enabled real-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and ground moving target indication (GMTI) radar mode operation. Responsible for the U.S. Air Force Science and Technology Plan for Space Based Radar (SBR) development, Davis transformed the SBR community from a collection of scientists into a team of specialists who develop state-of-the-art technology for the United States and its allies. He was also instrumental to the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Mountain Top Radar Program, which involved the collection of measured data for validating radar space-time adaptive processing (STAP) techniques. He was responsible for the end-to-end process of algorithm validation, measured data characterization, and processing using high-performance computing. His contributions to industry include the development of critical electronic components and signal processing technologies that were ahead of their time, leading to highly sophisticated, advanced, multifunction radar technology for improved GMTI and real-time SAR capabilities. Davis’ more recent activities include pioneering work on advancing foliage penetration (FOPEN) radar systems for improved detection and characterization of objects hidden by dense foliage. Based on his FOPEN system development and test expertise, Davis authored the textbook Foliage Penetration Radar: Detection and Characterisation of Objects Under Trees (2011) on FOPEN radar and has been the IEEE Aerospace Electronics Systems Society’s distinguished lecturer on foliage penetration and ultra-wideband radar since 2012.
An IEEE Life Fellow and recipient of the 2011 Warren D. White Award for Excellence in Radar Engineering, Davis is an international consultant through medavis consulting, Prospect, NY, USA.
A world-renowned radar researcher, Hugh Griffiths’ pioneering work on multistatic radar and creating and advancing passive radar technologies changed traditional thinking of radar methods and has provided solutions for dealing with the challenges of increasing spectrum congestion. Utilizing nonradar transmitters, passive radar uses bistatic techniques. Griffiths conducted some of the first experiments on passive bistatic radar and published the first paper on the topic. Although real-time signal processing constraints initially proved to be challenging, he overcame early roadblocks to create the commensal passive bistatic radar, in which broadcast or communications waveforms, such as television signals, are optimized not only for their primary function but also as radar signals. Griffiths’ work spurred further research into passive radar, the results of which can be seen in today’s technologies where passive radar receivers with embedded high-performance computers may provide an alternative to active radars for operation in spectrally congested environments. Griffiths has also led a program to measure the bistatic radar signatures of sea clutter and small maritime targets. He helped develop a unique multistatic radar system called NetRAD that demonstrated that bistatic sea clutter as less spiky than monostatic clutter and provided performance advantages of several decibels. Called “clutter diversity,” this work is being extended to other radar frequencies and configurations. He also initiated and led a program using synthetic aperture sonar to detect and classify objects such as naval mines, pipelines, or wrecks from an autonomous underwater vehicle incorporating algorithms that correct for irregular vehicle motion and propagation inhomogeneities through seawater. The results, featuring well-focused images of targets at ranges in excess of 200 meters with spatial resolution of a few centimeters, were some of the first of their kind.
An IEEE Fellow and Fellow of the UK Royal Academy of Engineering, Griffiths is the THALES/Royal Academy Chair of RF Sensors in the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering at University College London, London, UK.
With a central research theme of waveform design and analysis, Nadav Levanon is considered one of the world’s foremost experts on radar theory and practice with many contributions to techniques that have become fundamental practices in radar signal processing. Levanon is most known for his development of the periodic ambiguity function (PAF), which is an important extension of Woodward’s ambiguity function. PAF is the main tool for analyzing and designing continuous-wave radar waveforms and periodic pulsed waveforms. Levanon’s early work on multicarrier waveforms for radar provides waveform variability and separability, which are of concern to advanced multiple-input, multiple output (MIMO) coding and are explored by the radar community. His recent work on noncoherent pulse compression has enabled coding concepts normally used in coherent radar to be applied to noncoherent radar such as laser radar. Making use of the laser’s natural on-off keying technique, these radars can operate using extremely low-peak optical power, which is important for low-cost operation and stealth applications. Levanon designed and built his first radar during 1968-69 as part of his Ph.D thesis. Hundreds of these balloon-borne radar altimeters flew for months on meteorological balloons that provided data used to enhance the early Antarctic ice elevation maps. His radar was later adapted for aircrafts as the Sperry AA100 Radar Altimeter. He also headed a team that developed the first bird-borne beacon for the ARGOS satellite tracking system that was used to locate and gather information on migrating birds. Levanon also developed the user location concept of Qualcomm’s GLOBALSTAR satellite communication system. Levanon’s Radar Principles (Wiley, 1988) and Radar Signals (Wiley, 2004) are important books in the field that have educated two generations of radar students and experts.
An IEEE Life Fellow and Fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology, Levanon is a Professor Emeritus of the Faculty of Engineering with Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
Marshall Greenspan’s pioneering work on multiple phase-center interferometric processing has significantly enhanced the state-of-the-art in ground-moving target indication (GTMI) radar technology critical to today’s military radar systems. Dr. Greenspan’s radar engineering career began in the early 1970s with the design and development of the navigation, targeting, and terrain-avoidance radar in the U.S. Navy’s carrier-based A-6 Intruder attack aircraft. The A-6 was designed to fly undetected at low altitudes for great distances at night and in all weather conditions, find its target, and return safely to its carrier. In the early 1980s, this radar was upgraded under Dr. Greenspan’s guidance to generate high-resolution images of the surface area illuminated by the radar beam. Indicators were overlaid upon the image to pinpoint the location of any ground moving targets found within the ground image scene. This revolutionary technology was adapted by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the US Air Force in a demonstration program named Pave Mover that put a side-looking radar in a high-speed US Air Force EF-111 to detect and track armored ground vehicles at long range while simultaneously guiding missiles to their intended targets. This technology became part of the U.S. Air Force/Army E-8 Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS), which provides ground surveillance to military commanders to support attack operations. With Dr. Greenspan’s expertise, JSTARS enabled US forces to map the position of the retreating Iraqi army during Operation Desert Storm. This work helped demonstrate the feasibility of GMTI space-time adaptive processing (STAP) for air-to-surface moving target radars at a time when computing technology was inferior to what is currently available. STAP’s importance to the radar community continues to grow as computing technology and radar hardware improve.
An IEEE Fellow and recipient of the first IEEE Warren D. White award for Excellence in Radar Engineering (2000), Dr. Greenspan is a senior consulting systems engineer (retired) with Northrop Grumman, Norwalk, CT, USA.
Yuri Abramovich’s solutions for handling interference and jamming have helped advance the capabilities of long-range radar and are integral to some of the world’s most advanced radar systems. Dr. Abramovich is most known for his work on suppressing interference in Over-The-Horizon Radars caused by natural sources such as thunderstorms or deliberate jamming. These systems can detect air and sea targets up to thousands of miles away and are used for military applications, maritime reconnaissance, and drug enforcement. He has conceived, developed, and evolved powerful adaptive signal-processing techniques that have demonstrated their ability to protect Over-The-Horizon Radar systems from interference while preserving the ability to detect targets. His techniques are known for achieving near-theoretical performance when applied in real-world situations where other proposed methods fell short. His diagonal loading principle for regularization of adaptive radar is used to improve adaptive filters. Dr. Abramovich also explored alternatives to diagonal loading, developing methods applicable to passive direction finding in nonuniform adaptive arrays and source detection. Considered one of the important developments in signal-processing theory in the past decade, he introduced the expected likelihood concept to normalize general likelihood ratio detectors for improved performance. Already a leading research engineer in the Ukraine, where he personally engineered many of his solutions into naval long-range radars and anti-ballistic missile multifunction radars, Dr. Abramovich emigrated to Australia in 1994 where he was in charge of a technical team that implemented a number of patented adaptive and signal-processing algorithms in a fielded high-frequency surface demonstrator. He helped to commercialize this system while also developing adaptive processing algorithms for advanced maritime detection and tracking for Australia’s Over-The-Horizon Radar defense network.
An IEEE Fellow and recipient of the European Association for Signal Processing’s Technical Achievement Award (2011), Dr. Abramovich is currently a principal research scientist with WR Systems Ltd., Fairfax, VA, USA.
Michael C. Wicks’ pioneering signal processing techniques changed the face of modern radar engineering, enabling advanced air and space radar systems for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance important to national security. An innovator of many new radar signal-processing techniques, Dr. Wicks is best known for development of knowledge-based STAP. Space-time adaptive processing, or STAP, improves target detection in environments where interference such as clutter or jamming exists. To overcome the limitations of traditional STAP, Dr. Wicks developed algorithms that can incorporate “prior knowledge” such as digital terrain maps and real-time and archival data to improve radar performance. Successfully demonstrated with airborne radar data during the 1990s, this approach has been further developed by the U.S. government and is finding its way into numerous real-world radars. Dr. Wicks has also been a driving force in waveform diversity, which has provided the foundation for fully adaptive radar. Waveform diversity extends adaptivity to the transmit signal, where it can be varied depending on the target and interference environment. He has also investigated problems in weak signal detection, distributed radar, and detection of targets that are covered or concealed.
An IEEE Fellow and U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory Fellow, Dr. Wicks’ many honors include the 2009 IEEE Warren D. White Award for Excellence in Radar Engineering. Dr. Wicks retired from the U.S. Air Force in 2011 as senior scientist for sensors signal processing at the Air Force Research Laboratory, Rome, NY, USA. He is currently a professor at the Ohio Scholar for Sensor Exploitation and Fusion at the University of Dayton, OH, USA.
Working for the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory’s Radar Division, Karl Gerlach has invented and developed electronic protection techniques over the last 30 years that are having and will continue to have a significant impact on improving the performance of radars against barrage and jamming. Dr. Gerlach developed the cascaded analog/digital sidelobe canceller and showed its potential as an effective adaptive antenna nulling technique against jamming. A successful experimental program was developed to demonstrate this technique, and a record level of cancellation was demonstrated. He also developed a phenomenological model for characterizing sea clutter that has impacted radar research. Based on this model, he developed additional signal processing methods to enhance target detection in the presence of sea clutter. In addition, his work has enhanced radar performance through invention and development of adaptive pulse compression methods that reduce range sidelobe masking of targets and fast, robust space-time adaptive processing (STAP) for airborne radar. Dr. Gerlach has also helped upgrade several signal processing efforts related to U.S. Navy legacy radars. He improved the SPS-49 sidelobe canceller by replacing it with a digital canceller. He also developed an effective pulse Doppler repair algorithm for the Aegis ballistic missile defense radar. He has contributed to signal processing upgrades for the U.S. Navy’s AN/SPQ-9B surface surveillance and tracking radar, the AN/SPN-43 air traffic control radar used on aircraft carriers, and the AN/SPY-3 multifunction radar for ships.
An IEEE Fellow, Dr. Gerlach retired in 2009 as head of the Advanced Signal Processing Section of the U.S. Naval Research Academy’s Radar Division, Washington, DC.
For over six decades James M. Headrick was a key contributor to the success of high-frequency over-the-horizon (OTH) radar, an important advance over conventional microwave radar techniques. High-frequency OTH radar has a range of 2,000 nautical miles and beyond for detecting aircraft, ships, and ballistic missiles and determining the strength of winds that drive ocean waves. Headrick’s pioneering work to develop high-frequency OTH radar began at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory in the late 1940s. By 1956 the Naval Research Laboratory was the first to successfully demonstrate a Doppler shift technique for detecting aircraft and ships despite the echoes caused by sea clutter. Headrick’s efforts led to the operation of the Naval Research Lab’s MADRE (for magnetic drum radar equipment) OTH radar, located on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay, in 1961. Headrick demonstrated the detection of aircraft and ships, of nuclear tests, of ballistic missile launches, and the importance of sea echoes. MADRE provided the foundation that led to the U.S. Air Force’s Continental Air Defense radar as well as the U.S Navy’s Relocatable OTH Radar (ROTHR) system, which has been adapted for use by U.S. Customs to detect drug smugglers trying to cross the U.S. border. Headrick’s work has also affected radar systems outside the United States, such as Australia’s Jindalee radar, which is the cornerstone of Australia’s national surveillance system.
An IEEE Life Senior Member, Headrick, who passed away in February 2011, was a retired annuitant research engineer with the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory residing in Stanfield, Ore.
Philip Woodward has profoundly influenced radar signal analysis through his application of probability and statistics to recover11ing data from noisy samples. Dr. Woodward focused on optimizing the information content of the radar signal instead of its electrical strength in a time when the focus was on maximizing the electrical strength by comparison with that of the background noise.
He applied Bayesian probability techniques to eliminate everything but the desired information from radar echoes. The Woodward Ambiguity Function provided the foundation for the development of complex waveforms in modern radars and for description of radar resolution and accuracy. It was able to show graphically how range and velocity accuracy could be traded, how spurious responses appear in both dimensions and the limitations governing the process. With computing power not available at the time it was developed, it now has enabled system designers to assess the capacity of a complex radar transmission to detect the range and radial velocity of a target and to define the optimum detection strategy.
Dr. Woodward's book, Probability and Information Theory, with Applications to Radar, is considered a classic in the field of radar, and his book entitled My Own Right Time is a classic in the field of horological science. With both fields in mind, the U.K. Royal Academy of Engineering awarded him their first-ever Lifetime Achievement Medal. Dr. Woodward retired in 1980 as a deputy chief scientific officer from the Royal Radar Establishment, where he began working in 1940. He currently resides in Malvern, United Kingdom.
Yaakov Bar-Shalom, one of the best known in the field of complex radar systems, has made numerous contributions to radar tracking technology over his 30-year career. Dr. Bar-Shalom's work has helped improve a broad range of commercial and military applications from air traffic control systems to the Patriot Missile defense system.
An early work, the probabilistic data association filter (PDAF), was developed for target tracking in low signal-to-noise ratio environments. Raytheon Corporation developed the PDAF into the Relocatable Over-the-Horizon Radar for the U.S. Navy to provide wide-area surveillance, and later for commercial applications involving the tracking of planes and ships. The PDAF was further developed into the joint probabilistic data association filter to facilitate the tracking of multiple, closely spaced targets in the presence of clutter.
Dr. Bar-Shalom also contributed to the development of the interacting multiple model estimator that can be used to reduce radar time and energy required to track maneuvering targets. His more recent work has helped facilitate the application of multiple hypotheses tracking in radar applications.
An IEEE Fellow, he is currently the Marianne E. Klewin Professor in Engineering and a University of Connecticut Board of Trustees Distinguished Professor. He has written seven books and more than 360 papers and book chapters, and is the most published author in IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems. Dr. Bar-Shalom holds a bachelor's and master's degrees from Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, and a doctorate from Princeton University, Princeton, N.J., all in electrical engineering.
Dr. Russell Keith Raney has been one of the foremost contributors to synthetic aperture radar systems (SAR) over the past 40 years. His work includes the first dual-aperture airborne moving-target-indicating SAR, and he has produced a thesis on quadratic filter theory, which provides the foundations for formal principles of conservation for SAR systems.
Throughout his distinguished career, Dr. Raney has played a significant role in developing innovative approaches to space-based radars. While working with the Canada Center for Remote Sensing, he was one of the principal technical architects behind RADARSAT-1, which was Canada's first space-borne radar satellite. Additionally, he made contributions to the conceptual design of CryoSat, the European Space Agency's first satellite developed to focus on the Earth's environment; the hybrid-polarity architecture for two lunar radars used by NASA and the Indian Space Research Organization; and his original contributions to NASA's Magellan spacecraft, which used radar imaging to provide highly detailed maps of Venus during its four year orbit from 1990-1994.
Dr. Raney holds six patents, one of which is for his co-invention of chirp-scaling SAR processing. He has published approximately 400 papers in referenced journals and symposia proceedings.
Currently, Dr. Raney is a member of the Principal Professional Staff in the Applied Physics Laboratory of the Space Department at Johns Hopkins University, and Assistant Supervisor of the Ocean Remote Sensing Group.
An IEEE Life Fellow, Dr. Raney has previously been presented with the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society Distinguished Achievement Award and the Transactions Prize Paper Award, among others. Dr. Raney received his bachelor of science from Harvard University, as well as a master's degree in Electrical Engineering from Purdue University and a doctorate from the University of Michigan.
Eli Brookner is a global radar authority known for his contributions to airborne, intelligence, space, air-traffic control and defense mission systems. Among his accomplishments is his leadership in designing advanced airport surveillance radars, making air travel safer.
A principal engineering fellow at Raytheon Company's Integrated Defense Systems, Sudbury, Massachusetts, Dr. Brookner has played a key role in many major radar and phased-array radar systems developed during the past 40 years. His teaching and lecturing have inspired and educated several generations of radar engineers worldwide, over 10,000 have attended his lectures.
At Raytheon, he has been a leader or advisor to over 20 major radar programs for civil and defense applications. During these programs he demonstrated exceptional technical leadership, devising less-expensive and better-performing alternatives to products on the market or on the drawing board. From 1972 to 1989, he was the technical lead on virtually all major U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy space-based radar studies.
In 1998, he was the lead system engineer for the Canadian RADARSTAT II solid-state high-resolution system. A year later, he was a key systems engineer for the development of the solid-state Airport Surface Detection Equipment Radar, which observes moving and stationary aircraft and vehicular traffic on airport runways, taxiways and ramps with a high degree of resolution.
An IEEE Life Fellow, Dr. Brookner has twice been chairman of the International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology. He is the recipient of the IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society (AESS) Warren White Award for Excellence in Radar Engineering, an IEEE Centennial Medal and an IEEE Millennium Medal, the IEEE Educational Activities Board Meritorious Achievement Award and is a Distinguished Lecturer for the IEEE AESS.