Copyright is a nearly exclusive right of an author to control the distribution and reproduction of his/her original works (see "Fair Use" below).

Copyright exists the moment a work is first fixed in some tangible, perceptible form.

Copyright protects the expression of an idea, NOT the idea itself.

  • The CCC does not make photocopies.
  • It conveys limited rights to photocopy-users to make and distribute their own copies.
  • The CCC's address is 222 Rosewood Dr., Danvers, MA 01923 USA.
CCC Code

The CCC code is constructed as follows:

ISSN or Product Code/volume year/$CCC fee

0741-3106/99/$17.00�

See http://www.ieee.org/copyright for the most recent version of the form.

No other copyright form is acceptable.

Crown copyright is used only when an author is (or ALL authors are) employed by a Crown government (i.e., British or Canadian). If a paper falls into the Crown copyright category, then the IEEE copyright line is deleted and the following wording is used instead:

�20xx Canadian [or British] Crown Copyright

Fair Use

Fair Use refers to a set of ideas or concepts intended to limit (under specific circumstances) the near-exclusive rights of the copyright owner. However, because Fair Use is a doctrine and not a fixed body of laws, no generally applicable definition is available.

Infringement

Broadly, infringement occurs when a work is reused without the author's/owner's permission, regardless of the fact that the reused work includes full attribution to the original author.

Plagiarism

Plagiarism is the act of using someone else's work in such a way as to make it appear as one's own.�

Reprints
  • The IEEE Reprints Department sells reprints of IEEE material.
     
  • Many people are interested in making their own reprints or copies.
     
  • All requests for permission to reprint or otherwise reuse IEEE material should be forwarded to the IEEE Intellectual Property Rights Office for response.
     
U.S. Government Work
The following notice should be used only when an author is (or ALL authors are) employed by the U.S. Government. If a paper falls into the U.S. Government copyright category, then the IEEE copyright line is deleted and the following wording is used instead:

U.S. Government Work Not Protected by U.S. Copyright

The CCC code must not appear with the above notice.